Salerno's Classroom Celebrates America!

AP Chapter 6

AP Government Summer Assignment
AP Chapters 1,2
AP Chapter 3
AP Chapter 4
AP Chapter 5
AP Chapter 6
AP Chapter 7
AP Chapter 8
AP Chapter 9
AP Chapter 10
AP Chapter 11
AP Chapter 12
AP Chapter 13
AP Chapter 14
AP Chapter 15
AP Chapter 16
U.S. History Chapters 1, 2, 3
U.S. History Chapter 4
U.S. History Chapter 5
U.S. History Chapter 6
U.S. History Chapter 7
U.S. History Chapter 8
U.S. History Chapter 9
U.S. History Chapter 10
U.S. History Chapter 11
U.S. History Chapter 12
U.S. History Chapter 13
U.S. History Chapter 14
U.S. History Chapters 16,17,18
U.S. History Chapters 19,20,21
U.S. History Chapters 22,23
U.S. History Chapters 24,25
U.S. History Chapters 26,27
U.S. History Chapters 28,29,30
U.S. History Chapter 31
U.S. History Chapter 32
U.S. History Chapter 33
US Government Chapters 1,2
US Government Chapter 3
US Government Chapters 10,11,12
US Government Chapters 13,14
US Government Chapter 18
US Govt Chapters 19,20,21
Remembering 9/11/01
The Civil Rights Movement
Economics Chapters 1,2,3
Eco Chapt 9
Eco Chapters 6,7,8
Eco Chapt 13
Eco Chapter 15
Eco Chapt 21




Chapter 6


Equal Rights


"Beware of any right that is given to you; the only real rights are those that you take for yourself."


Mr. Dooley

Irish-American Bartender

Finley Peter Dunne - Humorist




I.       Gender


Women's Rights





-dominate class develops an idea and believes it.


-idea is adopted, and society evolves and is happy


eg. “slavery”



Anne Hutchinson-         the "dissenter"


1. A woman with a brain

Women were not supposed to be smart.

She stepped out of her   "sphere"



2. Spoke out against predestination


Role of women pre-Civil War

1. mothers

2. domestics

3. inferior labor



A women's identity was covered or absorbed by her husbands.  Through tradition, a husband would control a wife's property, punish her, and provide her with only minimal necessities.



*        Women's movement

*        Abolitionists


1848 - Declaration of Rights

and SentimentsSeneca Falls NY


Elizabeth Cady Stanton; Lucretia Mott


After Civil War,

the alliance dissolves Women are lost in shuffle



Bradwell v Illinois (1873) -prevented a women from

practicing law (she passed the bar exam) because of her natural timidity and delicacy



*Women did work for 1/4 the pay

* Same jobs as men!



Progressive Era 1890 - 1920


NAWSA – Susan B. Anthony

Suffrage / Temperance


                   Even - NAACP

Labor – Always an issue; Middle Class Progressives stressed safety in the work place


* No correlation accepted between

long hours and low pay


*protective legislation (especially for women and children)




Lochner v NY (1905)

Protection from abusing workers through long hours



Muller v Oregon (1908) Using the Brandeis Brief

(medical evidence, data)


Pregnant women have to be protected because of her inferior physical nature



Triangle Shirtwaist Fire 1911



WWI - finally gave women respect they deserved



19th Amendment


ERA -        1920's




The Feminine Mystique-  Betty Friedan



Reed v Reed (1971)

A case which gave women the right to legally handle her deceased child's estate



Frontiero v Richardson (1973)

Women could have a man as a dependent


Roe v Wade (1973)

*Feminists standard of equality*


ERA - 1970's & 1980's  equal pay

 Passed 84-8 in the Senate

 Passed 354-24 in the House

(Did not get past State Legislature)


The Success of Roe actually hurt the momentum.

Needs 38 states, Dies June 30, 1982



Title IX (1972)







(National Organization of Women)

works to promote gender equality





Rostker v Goldberg (1981)

Women not included in US Selective Service Process







Planned Parenthood of

SE Penn v Casey (1992)

Trimester approach is abolished substituting the undue burden standard.  (States could regulate as long as they did not pose undue burden on a pregnant women)


Principles of

Roe v Wade affirmed




NOW v Schiedler (1994)

Quick action against those accused of violence against

Women’s Clinics




Romer v Evans (1996)

Bars discrimination based on sexual preference.  Not rational or reasonable





Gay Rights

a formidable political block

*        2.8 American Men

*        1.4 American Females


1992 - President Clinton supported gays in the military


not well received in Congress, strongly opposed by Sen Sam Nunn then Chair of the Armed Services Committee.

(Don't ask, don't tell policy)


PAC - Human Rights Campaign

1995 -annual budget of 8 million



(2000 election donated 1.1m)


1996 - President Clinton was in opposition of same sex marriages



Boy Scouts of America v Dale

Can prohibit gay scoutmaster

(private organization)


2004 – Bush against recognizing

       same sex marriages


Major Campaign Issue






Disabled Americans

-protected by Civil Rights Acts;


1990 -  Americans with Disabilities Act 





Multiculturalism - 1990's


*        acceptance

*        tolerance

*        harmony



Integration--->loss of identity?


Historically  acculturalization






loss of ethnicity = Americanization



Native Americans


-Indian Removal Policy

-Dawes Act 1887


-Indian Reorganization Act 1934


*        1972 - "Trail of Broken Treaties" at BIA in DC


*        American Indian Movement (AIM)

seized area of Wounded Knee in So. Dakota. 

Internal conflicts


US v Sioux Nation of  Indians(1980)





Hispanic Americans


-migrant worker  "Chicano"

-Cesar Chavez



California   -   Hispanics = 28%

54 delegates           4 Congressman              


illegals = 4 million ?

70% are Hispanic




Puerto Rico

US Commonwealth


In House of Representatives, Puerto Rico has a

Resident Commissioner




Asian Americans -


*        Chinese Exclusion Act (1880s)


*        Gentlemen's Agreement





African Americans


19th Century



-Women’s Rights (Equal Suffrage)



Civil War Amendments

13th              14th              15th


Black Codes

Laws denying newly freed African Americans legal rights

* State way of insuring dominance


Jim Crow Laws

Legal discrimination based on race…”whites only”


Civil Rights Act of 1875

(attempt to correct problem)



Civil Rights Cases (1883)

Supreme Court decided that discrimination in public accommodations such as railroads, theaters, restaurants

Hotels could not be prohibited

By the Civil Rights Act because it was private,

not state discrimination

The Scope of the Act narrowed


* “grandfather clauses” emerge

  attempts to keep Black Americans from becoming a voting block



* Plessy v Ferguson (1896) Created a separate but equal society

 -actually created a two nation country, especially in the south.


-bathrooms, seating areas, restaurants even church seating



-Jesse Owens awards dinner-


Pres. Eisenhower appointed Earl Warren to the Supreme Court.  The Court proved to be very liberal during the 1950's and 1960's


Brown v Board of Education(1954)

argued by Thurgood Marshall:


How could a Black Law School be equal to Yale Law?

Public institutions can no longer be legally segregated


Public Schools were no longer segregated.



(last schools were de-segregated by 1972)



Not well received in the south.


Arkansas - 1957

Governor Oral Faubus sent State Militia to prevent Blacks from mixing in white schools.


Ike sent 1000 paratroopers to control the white mob and militia


Rosa Parks - tired seamstress who refused to give up her seat on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama


She served as an inspiration for Dr. Martin Luther  King            Montgomery Bus Boycott.


The non-violent protest

Jesus Christ

Mohandas Gandhi

Dr. King


Strategy - always peaceful, well dressed 


protestors trained to take beatings


1) Southern resistance

- electric cattle prods, angry mobs, fire hoses


2)                Riots and fire bombings in the Northern States


3) June 1963 - Alabama Governor George Wallace prevented blacks from enrolling in the University of Alabama.  JFK forced him to back down


June 11, 1963 - JFK addressed the nation on T.V. calling for support on civil rights legislation.


That Night…..


NAACP leader of Mississippi, Medgar Evers, was murdered outside of his home




March on Washington Aug 28,1963.  The purpose was to drum up support for Kennedy sponsored legislation


200,000 gathered in front of the Lincoln Memorial Blacks and Whites


Civil Rights Act (1964)  LBJ

-        racial discrimination not tolerated where there is federal funding.


-        strong attempt to protect right to vote


-        Equal Opportunity  Cmmission


-        Cooperation of the Attorney General in speeding up court cases to hasten de-segregation 


Suspect classification

Triggers the highest standard of scrutiny from the Supreme Court




(Strict Scrutiny- a heightened standard of review used by the SC to determine the constitutional validity of a challenged practice.


(Racial profiling,

blatant discrimination)




24 Amendment(1964)    no poll tax


Wesberry v Sanders(1964)  Gerrymandering


1965 - Voting Rights Act


Swann v Charlotte-Mecklenburg S D (1971)   

(students assigned to schools closet to their homes caused large segments of Blacks to only go to certain schools)

de jure discrimination

racial discrimination that is a direct result of law




The remedy for de jure segregation…………. Bussing






The Supreme Court was careful identify de facto segregation (segregation through housing patterns,

neighborhoods, not law)


Keyes v. School District No. 1 Denver, Colorado

The Court ruled that Denver Could not operate deliberately segregated schools by manipulating school boundaries




Shaw v Reno (1993)


Miller v Johnson (1995)


Cases where the Court denounced

Impractical redistricting



Affirmative Action


Reverse Discrimination



Bakke and Weber decisions



Adarand Construction

V Penna (1995)


Affirmative action plans on a case by case basis


Michael B. Preston

"The New Black Politics:

The Search for Political Power