Salerno's Classroom Celebrates America!
AP Chapter 9
AP Government Summer Assignment
AP Chapters 1,2
AP Chapter 3
AP Chapter 4
AP Chapter 5
AP Chapter 6
AP Chapter 7
AP Chapter 8
AP Chapter 9
AP Chapter 10
AP Chapter 11
AP Chapter 12
AP Chapter 13
AP Chapter 14
AP Chapter 15
AP Chapter 16
U.S. History Chapters 1, 2, 3
U.S. History Chapter 4
U.S. History Chapter 5
U.S. History Chapter 6
U.S. History Chapter 7
U.S. History Chapter 8
U.S. History Chapter 9
U.S. History Chapter 10
U.S. History Chapter 11
U.S. History Chapter 12
U.S. History Chapter 13
U.S. History Chapter 14
U.S. History Chapters 16,17,18
U.S. History Chapters 19,20,21
U.S. History Chapters 22,23
U.S. History Chapters 24,25
U.S. History Chapters 26,27
U.S. History Chapters 28,29,30
U.S. History Chapter 31
U.S. History Chapter 32
U.S. History Chapter 33
US Government Chapters 1,2
US Government Chapter 3
US Government Chapters 10,11,12
US Government Chapters 13,14
US Government Chapter 18
US Govt Chapters 19,20,21
Remembering 9/11/01
The Civil Rights Movement
Economics Chapters 1,2,3
Eco Chapt 9
Eco Chapters 6,7,8
Eco Chapt 13
Eco Chapter 15
Eco Chapt 21

Chapter 9


The Executive Branch

and the Federal Bureaucracy



The Federal Bureaucracy

= Civil Service

= bureaucrats


According to

Sociologist Max Weber:


Hierarchical authority structure

Power flows from the top down and responsibility flows from the bottom up       


Task specialization

Experts instead of amateurs perform technical jobs                                             


Develop extensive rules

Allows cases to be handled similarly instead of capriciously


Merit Principle

Entrance and promotion are based on demonstrated ability to eliminate nepotism



An attempt to be impartial



The Executive Branch’s

federal bureaucracy is huge -----> 4 million People


Presidential Appointments

Plum Book”



Bureaucracies tend to mushroom once established

Parkinson's Law - "Work expands so as to fill the available time for its completion"



Hannah Arendt - "rule by no one"

a system where very few or no one can held accountable




School Board Politics


The People - Voters





Asst Superintendents


Asst Principals


Teachers         -  Union

Aids             -   Union

Custodians       -  Union

Cafeteria        -  Union




Problem faced

by the US Government (elections)


Can government be decreased or streamlined effectively/fairly?


Many US Government Agencies deal directly with problems



Department of Agriculture

sensitive to farmers



purchases----> effect the price                          of grain



senators and congressmen from the "Heartland" States are sensitive to the needs of their constituencies

(farmers and harvest companies)



they sponsor legislation beneficial to their states


they are supported by special interest groups

(farmers, harvest co.) 



Morris P. Fiorina

*Congress is the alpha and omega

(they will denounce and approve)

-full circle-


the creation of the bureaucratic

"Iron Triangle"


                     a subgovernment


A powerful alliance of mutual benefit among an agency or unit of government, an interest group and or a subcommittee of Congress



*   Interest groups

(farmers, harvest co. lobbyists)


*   Congress

Senate and the House Agricultural     Committees

    Sub Committees


*   Bureaucracy

(Department of Agriculture)

         Grain Division, etc…







Military Complex and

the Iron Triangle


*   Department    (Bureaucratic)

  of Defense              Agency



*   Military         (Interest Group)

Contractors           Lobbyist



*   Congress (Committees, Staff)




*The New Deal -

defined bureaucracy



*The Great Society

illuminated them




Today    an Independent Prosecutor

             and his staff

The Budget

OMB - an Executive Branch Office

created in 1970

designed to shift to the President tighter control over management of the bureaucracy


Federal Government fiscal year


*starts October 1 and ends                                                September 30


Congressional Budget Office

House Budget Committee

Senate Budget Committee



Issue Networks

The loose and informal relationship across the broad range of agencies


Hugh Heclo

Argues they have overlapped. 



Kid’s issues are linked to both education and welfare





Iron Triangles have become rusty

1)problems are complex

2)issues cut across policy areas

3)special interest located in DC



Administration Adjudication

When they over-lap,

A bureaucratic agency will settle the dispute

*mediation or arbitration*



Clientele agencies

Executive departments directed by law to foster and promote interests of a specific segment or group.


Cabinet Department of Education, Agriculture, Energy….   also

Within Department of Labor

Women’s Bureau (created 1920)


Government Corporations

From New Deal…..TVA, FDIC

Also….US Postal Service




Charles Schultze

(Carter’s Economic Adviser)


on the Command and Control Policy of federal bureaucracy

Existing system of regulation whereby government tells business how to reach certain goals, checks that these commands are followed, and punishes offenders.


Schultze favors the

incentive system


Independent Executive Agencies





FBI -        J. Edgar Hoover and civil rights violations


CIA - assassinations

Iran -  Contra ?



NASA - John Glenn?

Space Shuttle Program






The Regulatory Commissions


*   The Federal Reserve Board



*   The Federal Trade Commission



*   Federal Communications             Commission (1934)


*   The Security and Exchange Commission (1934)


*   NLRB (National Labor Relations Board)


*   The Federal Energy Regulatory






Social Regulation

Grew during the 1970s and 1980s

*Environmental Protection Agency



*Occupational Safety and Health    Administration            OSHA


*Equal Employment Opportunity Commission


Since 1995, lower budgets




*   Deregulation


Airline Industry - big carriers                 were awarded routes


competition - smaller companies

competed with lower rates


Interstate Commerce Commission

went out of business in 1995










Interagency Councils


Purpose is to coordinate policy making across a host of govt agencies


The Office of Homeland Security



Department of Homeland Security

         Secret Service/Customs








Civil Service




Thomas Jefferson  - dismissed hundreds of Federalists in favor of members of his own party


Andrew Jackson

- the "spoils system"


1871 - Civil Service Commission



1880 - James A. Garfield

Republican - reform candidate


Stalwarts - Chester A. Arthur

anti-reform VP


Garfield is assassinated,

Arthur becomes a reformer!



Civil Service Reform Act (1883)

(Pendleton Act)


established system where 10% of federal employees are chosen by a competitive exam.




Hatch Act of 1939

barred federal administrative officials from active political campaigning and soliciting Was this a denial of rights?


Civil Service Commission v

National Association of Letter Carriers, AFL-CIO (1973)

Court upheld the act saying that job security may be related to party loyalty


Jimmy Carter  -

A government that can be trusted


Civil Service Reform Act

*   Office of Personnel Management

(President's personal arm)


                    Merit Systems

Protection Board


-Waste control,



*   Federal Labor

Relation Authority

arbitrate labor disputes


*   Senior Executive Service (SES)



Supergrade – High level civil servant in a bureaucracy




                    The Whistle-Blowers


The X-Files

– Agents Mulder and Scully



ombudsman - takes the complaints from citizens, victims wronged by government agencies