Salerno's Classroom Celebrates America!
US Government Chapters 13, 14


US Government Chapter 14
Remembering 9/11/01
Favorite Links
Informal Amendment Process
US Government Syllabus
US Government 1st Quarter Project
US Government Chapters 1,2
US Government Chapter 3
US Government Chapters 10,11,12
US Government Chapters 13, 14
American History Honors
American History Syllabus
US History 1st Quarter Project
U.S. Honors Chapters 1, 2, 3
U.S. Honors Chapter 4
U.S. Honors Chapter 5
U.S. Honors Chapter 6
The Living US Constitution
U.S. Honors Chapter 7
U.S. Honors Chapter 8
U.S. Honors Chapter 9
U.S. Honors Chapter 10
U.S. Honors Chapter 11
U.S. Honors Chapter 12
U.S. Honors Chapter 13
U.S. Honors Chapter 14
U.S. Honors Chapters 16,17,18
U.S. Honors Chapters 19,20,21
U.S. Honors Chapters 22,23
U.S. Honors Chapters 24,25
U.S. Honors Chapters 26,27
U.S. Honors Chapters 28,29,30
The Civil Rights Movement
U.S. Honors Chapter 31
U.S. Honors Chapter 32
U.S. Honors Chapter 33
AP Government
AP Government Syllabus
AP Chapters 1,2
AP Chapter 3
AP Chapter 12
AP Chapter 13
AP Chapter 15
AP Chapter 14
AP Chapter 4
AP Chapter 5
AP Chapters 6 & 7
AP Chapter 8
AP Chapter 9
AP Chapter 10
AP Chapter 11

The Chief Executive
The President of the United States






              Chapter 13


              Article II

The Executive Branch - The President


Qualifications :


-Must be at least 35 years old

-Natural-born citizen of the US

-Lived in the United States at   least 14 years

-Term of office - 4 years


Duties and Responsibilities


To enforce the Law;

To make Treaties;

To make foreign policy;


To approve of, or veto acts of     Congress;

To send or receive diplomats;

To grant pardons or amnesty.



Compensation- 400,00 annual salary

  50,000 expense account


The total benefit package of the President would exceed the net amount of 15 million dollars.


*Constitutional Amendments concerning         the Presidency


12th Amendment - Established the President and the Vice- President as a single ballot.  In the Presidential election of 1800, Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr received the same amount of electoral votes, even though they represented the same party and it was acknowledged that Jefferson was the Presidential candidate and Burr the Vice- Presidential candidate.




20th Amendment- The Lame-duck Amendment moving the Presidents term from beginning on March 4, to Jan 20.


22nd Amendment- 2 term, 10 year maximum in office. (1951)


25th Amendment- Presidential        Succession




Speaker of the House

President of the Senate

Secretary of State




If the office of the Vice-President is vacant, the President shall appoint and Congress shall approve




The Vice-President

(1) to preside over the Senate

(2) to succeed if necessary


He sits on the Security Council and continuously supports the President.  He keeps himself ready, just in case


VP is not always a factor and sometimes at odds with the President


EG. Andrew Jackson and John Calhoun


 Franklin D. Roosevelt and

 Harry S Truman



 John F. Kennedy and

 Lyndon B. Johnson



The Electoral College - The means of choosing the American President


The Framers felt that the common man wasn't qualified enough to elect a president.  They feared special interest and partisanship.


Presidential electors are chosen by State Legislatures


Major defects of the Electoral      College process


1) Winner take all theory, even if the vote is close in a specific state


2) Not casting proper vote


3) In a 3 party race, a candidate with a small percentage of the popular vote could be elected if he has support in the House of Rep






              Chapter 14


The Executive Office


The President's Job:




To enforce laws;

make treaties;

foreign policy;   domestic policy; Commander-in-Chief;

approve of or veto legislation;

send or receive diplomats;

grant pardons.


Question - How do we define the scope of his power?  


Ans. We don't!

Reason - Strong presidents use their executive power to shape their office



George Washington - Leadership; Cabinet; Farewell Address


Thomas Jefferson - Promoting equality; Louisiana Purchase


Andrew Jackson - Jacksonian Democracy

Common Man; Initiating Legislation


Abraham Lincoln - Strong Leadership;

exercising executive power when regulating public opinion, and as commander-in-chief



Theodore Roosevelt - thought the office of the American President  could do anything not specifically restricted by the Constitution.


Franklin Roosevelt - The only 4 term President, used his office while attempting to solve the problems of the American economy


Lyndon B. Johnson - A most skilled politician using his influence to pass his programs and strengthen his powers (Gulf of Tonkin)


Richard M. Nixon - The Imperial President.  Attempted to control inflation through a price freeze.

A powerful foreign affairs President


Ronald R. Reagan - Strong and unwavering in foreign affairs.  Less government control; deregulation




The White House Office


400 people who work for the President.  Lawyers, doctors, Press Secretary.  Also a special staff for the First Lady.

Headed by the Chief of Staff




National Security Council

President, Vice-President, Secretary of State, Secretary of Defense, Director of the CIA, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs.




Office of Policy and Development

Domestic Affairs- headed by the Assistant to the President for Development



Office of the Management and Budget

Each Federal agency must present their Budget for the coming year.  Each Dept Head  must defend his plan at hearings.  Final draft is revised , added or slashed and fitted into the President's over all plan.



Plan      Revision          Approval


OMB       President         Congress



The OMB gives the President:

a) close control over budget

b) an agency that will monitor congressional spending

c) information that will help check Congress.  President can veto any inconsistent spending.


**(Congress Budget Office counters)





Council of Economic Advisers

Group that advises the President on the Economy by watching for trends and Indictors


Council on Environmental Quality

Environmental Policies



Office of US Trade Representative

Represents President in Foreign Trade negotiations



Office of Science and Technology Policy

Science and technological advances


Office of Administration

Clerical work for all agencies







The President's Cabinet


An informal advisory body aiding the President.


*(Courtesy Mr. George Washington)*


The President picks each head with confirmation of the Senate.


EG. Washington chose


Thomas Jefferson - Sec. of State

Alexander Hamilton - Sec. of Treasury

Henry Knox          - Sec. of War   Edmund Randolph - Attorney General

Benjamin Franklin -PostMaster General



*Naturally, each person has a special expertise in the area of his Dept.



Appointees are loyal, but not always from the same Political Party



They serve as:

a) Heads of their departments

b) Advisers to the President


Almost always approved of by Congress, hence the President's pick capable people



Some Presidents rely heavily on their Cabinet members - Ronald Reagan


Others did not

-Andrew Jackson's Kitchen Cabinet

-JFK and his brother Bobby




*Activity - Picking a Cabinet from Iona's Faculty.



Secretary of State  - Salerno


Treasury-        - Sloat

Defense-          - V Quirolo

Attorney General-  Poccia

Interior-         K O

Agriculture-   Mack

Commerce-      Conroy   

Labor-         Juan

H&H Services-  Fay 

HUD-           Conrad   

   Transportation- Nacho

Energy-        Vitti 

Education-   Mock  

Veteran Affairs-  Moore  






     The Powers of the President


The Framers of the Constitution had to decide which direction the Executive Office should take.


1) An institution to carry out the will of Congress.


2) A separate single Executive independent of Congress with its own field of Powers.



*  The vast power of the Executive Branch is concentrated in one man.


*  He is one person, easy to identify with and can be called a leader.




How does the President increase his power? 


1.Congress has passed laws to strengthen the presidency

* FDR received extra power to help lead us out of the Great Depression


2. A President's influence and charisma may enable him to expand his executive power.

* T.R. "President is a steward- do everything within the power of the Constitution and expand beyond if necessary"






Chief Executive - the President is the head of the Department, described by the Constitution in Article 2


The President has to enforce and carry out law because

1) his oath of office

2) the constitution commands so



Congress may pass a law in broad terms.  The responsibility of interpretation falls upon the President.


Eg. Literacy Tests

Congress passes the laws;

President sets the requirements



Chief Administrator - he presides over the huge executive department. 


3 million people are subordinate to the President          


-He has the power to issue executive orders which have the effect of law.

Eg.  -A wage and price freeze.





He has the Power of Appointment (with the advise and consent of the Senate)


He has the Power of Removal - he can remove any appointed official except Federal Judges.


Test cases

Tenure of Office Act-

Andrew Johnson's Impeachment


Meyers v US (1926) - Wilson's removal of Frank Meyers viewed Constitutional


Humphrey's Executor v US (1935)- FDR removed his FTC because of political reasons.  He died.  His heirs sued for back salary and were successful.  The SC cited the FTC as

"quasi legislative, quasi judicial"

in character.



Chief Diplomat - The Power to make Treaties.  He is responsible for foreign policy.  He sends and receives ambassadors for the American People.



Formal Agreements- require 2/3 Senatorial Approval.  (joint resolutions can  override the defeat)


Executive Agreement- Informal Agreement can be made without Congressional approval.  Eg

-Jimmy Carter's Camp David Accords

-Ronald Reagan at Reykjavik


Power of Recognition-a very important tool.  Truman recognized Israel minutes after their Declaration of Independence.


Recall of an Ambassador is a sharp negative statement, usually leading to war.  Persona-non-grata.




Chief of Party-   He is the leader of his Political Party. 


He will carry out his party's platform (might be a coalition candidate)






Chief of State- ceremonial head of the American Government


Chief Citizen



Commander-in-Chief- The President is the civilian head of the military


Eg.  *Truman's decision to drop the    Atomic Bomb in 1945


*Truman fired the American Caesar in 1953 (MacArthur)


*LBJ upgraded US Forces in South Vietnam in 1965


*Nixon's secret bombing of Cambodia in 1972


*Reagan and Beirut in 1982


*Bush in the Persian Gulf-1990

Somalia -1991


*Clinton in Bosnia 1995





***The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

in 1964 gave the President complete authority and approval of Congress to send troops anywhere in the world to protect American interests. 




***War Powers Act (1973) Restrictions

-When committing American troops abroad, the President must notify Congress within 48 hours


-He is permitted to do so for 60 days with a 30 day option - 90 days


-He would then need Congress's approval for that option



During wartime, the President's power greatly expands with the military and at home.  Gas rationing, wage control, operation of private business for war production.

He can request the state's to activate their militia




Chief Legislator- The President sets the overall shape of the Congressional Agenda by suggesting, initiating, supporting, requesting and demanding that Congress enact most legislation on its agenda.

His State of the Union  address contains his budget plans, economic report.  Congress acts accordingly.


The President can

1) sign a bill into law

2) veto a bill

3) exercise pocket veto


His veto or threat of a veto effects law. 


( on the State level, a Governor has a line item veto.  He can veto certain parts of a bill. 


A President's veto was rendered upon the whole bill, now he has line-item veto)


If Congress cannot agree upon an adjournment date, he can prorogue or adjourn Congress.

The President has special


Judicial Powers


1) He can reprieve (postpone) a sentence.  This power is absolute and used in federal offenses.


2) He has the power to Pardon (the legal forgiveness of a crime).  Accepting the pardon is an acceptance of guilt after a trial. (not with Nixon)


*Pardons can be conditional


*He can commute(reduce) a sentence


*He can issue a blanket pardon over a group.  This is called Amnesty





Enter supporting content here