Salerno's Classroom Celebrates America!
AP Chapter 4
AP Government Summer Assignment
AP Chapters 1,2
AP Chapter 3
AP Chapter 4
AP Chapter 5
AP Chapter 6
AP Chapter 7
AP Chapter 8
AP Chapter 9
AP Chapter 10
AP Chapter 11
AP Chapter 12
AP Chapter 13
AP Chapter 14
AP Chapter 15
AP Chapter 16
U.S. History Chapters 1, 2, 3
U.S. History Chapter 4
U.S. History Chapter 5
U.S. History Chapter 6
U.S. History Chapter 7
U.S. History Chapter 8
U.S. History Chapter 9
U.S. History Chapter 10
U.S. History Chapter 11
U.S. History Chapter 12
U.S. History Chapter 13
U.S. History Chapter 14
U.S. History Chapters 16,17,18
U.S. History Chapters 19,20,21
U.S. History Chapters 22,23
U.S. History Chapters 24,25
U.S. History Chapters 26,27
U.S. History Chapters 28,29,30
U.S. History Chapter 31
U.S. History Chapter 32
U.S. History Chapter 33
US Government Chapters 1,2
US Government Chapter 3
US Government Chapters 10,11,12
US Government Chapters 13,14
US Government Chapter 18
US Govt Chapters 19,20,21
Remembering 9/11/01
The Civil Rights Movement
Economics Chapters 1,2,3
Eco Chapt 9
Eco Chapters 6,7,8
Eco Chapt 13
Eco Chapter 15
Eco Chapt 21

State and Local Governments

Chapter 4

State and local governments


The question of power of state and local governments and their relationship with the federal government is deeply rooted historically.


Chisholm v Georgia (1793)


The Supreme Court affirmed its jurisdiction under Article III to include the right to hear a suit brought on by a citizen against a state in which he did not reside.


State sovereignty, independence, and supremacy were checked dramatically.


11th Amendment was ratified in 1798

granting sovereign immunity.  A state cannot be sued in any federal or state court without its consent.


Our federalism does not include the theory that government is built from the bottom up.


The power of the federal government has its roots the states who formed a union to empower it.


State governments in turn empower the municipal governments (local)


Dillon’s Rule (1868)

Local government does not have sovereignty.  It draws its powers from the states.



Baker v Carr 1962


Addresses the dense population issues of  cities and the sparse population of rural areas each having the same number of legislators. 

Reason:  cities were not fully represented. 


The court establishes

“one-person, one vote”


State legislatures have become more representative, and their agendas are more responsive to the needs of their constituents.


When state law conflicts with federal law, we rely on the principle of inclusion

State courts would be obliged to enforce federal law.



Legislative Districts of a State 2005

Adam Bradley              89th District

George Latimer   91st District

Richard Brodsky 92nd District

Amy Paulin       88th District



NY State Senate Districts 2005

Jeff Klein – 34th District (Bronx/West)

Andrea Stewart-Cousins – 35th District (West)

Suzi Oppenheimer 37th District (West)





The Governor

is the chief executive of the state with power to veto legislation.  (general package veto)

and the line-item veto (specifics)


Both can be overridden by 2/3 majority

of each chamber


A Governor has the power to







Direct Democracy in America

(found in state/local governments)


The Town Meeting

Where issues are proposed, discussed and voted on



The executive and legislative


***Manager -  hired by the council to           conduct day to business


Strong Mayor/ weak Mayor


District based elections/ at-large elections

Direct Initiative

Voters place a proposal on a ballot and enact it into law without involving the legislature or the governor. 


Indirect Initiative

 Legislature places a proposal on a ballot and allows voters to enact it into law.


Direct referendum(popular)

 A process in which voters can veto a bill recently passed in the legislature by placing the issue on a ballot and expressing disapproval.  In Advisory referendum, voters cast non-binding ballots.



Voters can remove a public official