Salerno's Classroom Celebrates America!
Eco Chapter 13
AP Government Summer Assignment
AP Chapters 1,2
AP Chapter 3
AP Chapter 4
AP Chapter 5
AP Chapter 6
AP Chapter 7
AP Chapter 8
AP Chapter 9
AP Chapter 10
AP Chapter 11
AP Chapter 12
AP Chapter 13
AP Chapter 14
AP Chapter 15
AP Chapter 16
U.S. History Chapters 1, 2, 3
U.S. History Chapter 4
U.S. History Chapter 5
U.S. History Chapter 6
U.S. History Chapter 7
U.S. History Chapter 8
U.S. History Chapter 9
U.S. History Chapter 10
U.S. History Chapter 11
U.S. History Chapter 12
U.S. History Chapter 13
U.S. History Chapter 14
U.S. History Chapters 16,17,18
U.S. History Chapters 19,20,21
U.S. History Chapters 22,23
U.S. History Chapters 24,25
U.S. History Chapters 26,27
U.S. History Chapters 28,29,30
U.S. History Chapter 31
U.S. History Chapter 32
U.S. History Chapter 33
US Government Chapters 1,2
US Government Chapter 3
US Government Chapters 10,11,12
US Government Chapters 13,14
US Government Chapter 18
US Govt Chapters 19,20,21
Remembering 9/11/01
The Civil Rights Movement
Economics Chapters 1,2,3
Eco Chapt 9
Eco Chapters 6,7,8
Eco Chapt 13
Eco Chapter 15
Eco Chapt 21

Labor in The United States

                 Chapter 13





Labor-                  swapping dollars for working hours


Supply and Demand in the Marketplace have a relationship with labor


Derived Demand for labor is dependent upon production factors and time



Eg.              19th Century- Blacksmiths were needed to shod horses and repair wagons and carts.


21st  Century- auto mechanics were and still are needed to repair cars, trucks....


Today - Diagnostic checks find problems that are repaired by individual specialists.



*Labor Productivity =                                                  

output produced

per hour of labor input


Wage Rate

          The price paid for each

unit of labor


*Supply of Labor

The amount of labor that would be available at each wage rate


Labor can increase


1. The demand for the output(product or service)may increase


2. The productivity of labor may increase


Equilibrium Wage

The wage rate at which the demand for labor equals the supply of labor


Minimum Wage Law


A law which sets the lowest wage that can be paid for certain kinds of work



Inverse relationship

 High Wages / Less Labor(hours)


Historically the relationship between wages paid and hour worked was not acknowledged in the US until the 1930's.


Carnegie, Rockefeller, Morgan

Lower wages; Longer hours

Minimum amount of income to live

(just enough to get by)





History of Labor in the United States


Marty the Merchant

(Middle Ages)


Domestic System

evolved into the

Factory System


Via the Industrial Revolution


The obvious labor source





Company Towns

Pullman, Homestead


“16 tons; what do you get;

another day older and deeper in debt;

St. Peter don’t expect me knocking at your door;”


“I sold my soul to the Company Store”



High Wages may result in


1) less labor

2) higher costs

3) less demand(high prices)



2000 labor hours =                                               

250 people working 8 hours

per day at $9/hr


8,000 labor hours

lower the wage to $5/hr


          (more working hours)



The Birth of the Union….



American Federation of Labor

          Samuel Gompers (1886)


Skilled workers resembling the Guild System


          *Master Mechanic








The Million Dollar Lofts of Tribeca the 21st Century were once the Sweat Shops of the 19th Century.



*Triangle Shirt Waist Fire*


***piece work…low wages***


The Birth of the

   Industrial Union



(Congress of Industrial    Organization)


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