Salerno's Classroom Celebrates America!

U.S. History Chapter 8

AP Government Summer Assignment
AP Chapters 1,2
AP Chapter 3
AP Chapter 4
AP Chapter 5
AP Chapter 6
AP Chapter 7
AP Chapter 8
AP Chapter 9
AP Chapter 10
AP Chapter 11
AP Chapter 12
AP Chapter 13
AP Chapter 14
AP Chapter 15
AP Chapter 16
U.S. History Chapters 1, 2, 3
U.S. History Chapter 4
U.S. History Chapter 5
U.S. History Chapter 6
U.S. History Chapter 7
U.S. History Chapter 8
U.S. History Chapter 9
U.S. History Chapter 10
U.S. History Chapter 11
U.S. History Chapter 12
U.S. History Chapter 13
U.S. History Chapter 14
U.S. History Chapters 16,17,18
U.S. History Chapters 19,20,21
U.S. History Chapters 22,23
U.S. History Chapters 24,25
U.S. History Chapters 26,27
U.S. History Chapters 28,29,30
U.S. History Chapter 31
U.S. History Chapter 32
U.S. History Chapter 33
US Government Chapters 1,2
US Government Chapter 3
US Government Chapters 10,11,12
US Government Chapters 13,14
US Government Chapter 18
US Govt Chapters 19,20,21
Remembering 9/11/01
The Civil Rights Movement
Economics Chapters 1,2,3
Eco Chapt 9
Eco Chapters 6,7,8
Eco Chapt 13
Eco Chapter 15
Eco Chapt 21


Chapter 8

The Election of 1808

Jefferson's pick, Sec of State James Madison
wins the Republican Nomination over John Randolph's faction candidate James Monroe

Madison/Clinton easily defeat Federalist candidate George Clinton
122 - 47 (Electoral Votes)

James Madison - 5'4'' - 100 lbs
A great legislator and political thinker.

Not an impressively strong President;
He did not dominate his Party as Jefferson once did. (factions)

His Cabinet also "factionalized"

Events leading to war.

1.The problem of neutral rights and freedom of the seas

2.Frontier Expansionism

**Madison was responsible for lifting Jefferson's Embargo.

Non-intercourse Act forbid trade only with England and France.

Get them to drop their trade restrictions
(orders and decrees)

In 1809 - British foreign minister David Erskine and Madison agreed to re-open trade between the US and UK
US is very happy

Erskine's terms to generous to the US Agreement denied by Britain

Madison embarrassed and humiliated, restores the Nonintercourse Act

Anglo/American relations worsened!

Non-intercourse Act expires

May, 1810 a confused and disunited
Congress and replaced it with trouble
(the lack of Madison's leadership)
Macon's Bill Number 2

a)The US could trade with the whole world
(including UK and France)

b)If France or Britain removed its orders and decrees,
the US would re-open its trade with the remover and enforce the Non-intercourse with the other.

Made to order for Napoleon!

Proclaiming his love for Americans and his concern for our prosperity, he announced that on Nov 1, 1810 that his decrees would be repealed

really meaningless:
because he continued his impressments, and restrictions

Madison is not able to get The UK to repeal its Orders in Council, he is forced to activate Non-intercourse Act

Madison recalls American Foreign Minister, William Pinckney cutting diplomatic relations with the UK.

Napoleon achieves economic war with England without doing anything.

America causes hardship in England
(scarce food, closing of factories)


The Rise of the War Hawks

The 12th Congress met in 1811.

They were second generation removed from the Revolution

Young and energetic, they looked for a war of their own.

They elected a young, eloquent and magnetic Henry Clay from Kentucky to Speaker of the House.

Frontier Americans wanted more land
They began to move into Indian Territory, buying up land from the fragmented tribes.

*Shawnee leader Tecumseh recognized the threat of westward expansion.

He spoke of Indian unity, pride and customs. He discouraged the drinking of "firewater" and the selling of Indian land to the Whites.

Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa (the Prophet) organized the Indians from Canada to Florida into one large Confederacy

They agreed not to sell off land and to keep whites out.

Battle of Tippecanoe

Governor William Henry Harrison made a treaty with some Indians that took away 3 million acres of their hunting grounds

Tecumseh wanted it back. In his speech at Vincennes he even offered to side with the Americans against the British.

"Sell a country! Why not sell the air, the clouds and the great sea, as well as the earth? Did not the Great Spirit make them for the use of all his Children?

Tecumseh at Vincennes, Ind.

Harrison refused.

Tecumseh left the region to unite and speak to the southern tribes.

Harrison surrounded his village at Tippecanoe

The Indians panicked and struck first. Harrison burned the village and the Indians were soundly defeated.

Tecumseh was killed in 1813, fighting with the British. With him died all hope of Indian unity.

Andrew Jackson defeated the Creek Indians at Horseshoe Bend

War hawks were beaming with each success, smelling blood.

War Hawks continued their call for war. Felix Grundy of Tenn, Richard M. Johnson of Kentucky, John C. Calhoun of South Carolina.

In Congress most believed falsely that the British caused all of the Indian problems.

War Hawks believed that the British in Canada were "scalp buyers" and aiding the Indians

Their cry in Congress
Canada, Canada, Canada a vast territory of natural resources

Andrew Jackson on war
"to seek some indemnity for past injuries, and some security against future aggression".

London announces it is going to repeal it Orders in Council, 2 days before war is declared

Madison gets a declaration of war from Congress in June, 79 - 49

Election of 1812

Madison defeats a Federalist and pacifist Republican backed DeWitt Clinton 128 - 89 in Electoral College

The election reflected a country that was dangerously divided concerning this war.

New Englanders, "Mr. Madison's War".
They wanted no part of this war

A Boston editor wrote, "No patriot conceives it his duty to shed his blood for Bonaparte, for Madison or Jefferson, and that host of Ruffians in Congress".

James Madison
A President who couldn't lead a foolhardy Congress

*New England merchants lent money to the British and sent huge quantities of food and supplies to the British in Canada.

*They refused to send fresh troops to the US regular Army and only maintained their own in State militia

*New England Federalists saw Canadian Territory as just another venue for Republicanism

Lack Of United State's Preparedness

US Navy - outnumbered by the British

US Army - small, led by incompetent generals

North East - refused to finance the war

Canada - forces equal to US Army

Three attacks were launched and promptly failed- Detroit, Niagara, and Lake Champlain
(Montreal was the key)

Canada remained unconquered

America lost but later regained the Northwest Territory

Admiral Oliver Hazard Perry - met the and defeated British at Lake Erie
"We have met the enemy and they are ours"

General William H. Harrison defeated the British at Thames
US managed only to stop the present British invasion

Europe 1814 - Napoleon is defeated and exiled on Elba

British Regulars were now free to concentrate on America.

War on the Seas

Britain had over 800 warships the
US had only 16 in its entire Navy!

There could be no great naval battle of warships on the high seas,

US picked and chose their fights and did quite well!

Frigate class ships won 4 out of 5 single ship encounters

*The Constitution, (Old Ironsides)
Victories over The Guerriere and Java

The United States over the Macedonian

Sloop class ships won 8 out of 9
*The Wasp and The Hornet did well.

The swift and annoying privateers did more damage to the British. They hit and ran away, usually quite swiftly and successfully

They captured about 1300 British

**They hurt British merchantmen, however, British were still superior and placed a crippling blockade**

The British Offensive
A three pronged attack plan

1stA NY invasion through the familiar lake-river route

At Lake Champlain, near Plattsburgh British are stopped by a 30 year old captain named Thomas Macdonough

This heroic victory saves upper NY from invasion and stops New England aid to the British
(also effects negotiations in Europe)

2nd(1814)At Niagara - General Jacob Brown and Winfield Scott hold off the British invasion force

The British supported the attacks with naval operations

* Landed in Chesapeake Bay in 1814. They easily defeated panicky militia at Bladensburg
(the Bladensburg races)

On to Washington DC - setting fire to the Capitol and the White House

At Baltimore chasing privateers they were defeated by defenders of Fort McHenry

Francis Scott Key
-aboard a ship wrote the words to

The Star-Spangled Banner

3rd (1815)The Battle of New Orleans
for control of the Mississippi Valley

Andrew Jackson's faced a British landing force twice the size of his rag tag army.

A British frontal assault proved to be disastrous

News of victory at New Orleans reached Washington before news of the Treaty of Ghent

To a naive US citizen Andy Jackson is crowned a hero, bringing the British to their knees

Treaty of Ghent was signed in Europe two weeks earlier

Britain was still worried about France and preoccupied by the Congress of Vienna

American success in upstate NY also helped along negotiations.

America and Britain agree to stop fighting and return to the
status quo ante bellum

Neutral rights, Orders in Council not mentioned in treaty

Result: Draw !

The Hartford Convention

(1814) New England trade was bottled up during the war

26 representatives "Blue Light" Federalists met to discuss economic problems.

*Secession - discussed but quickly refuted

Agenda - Try to retain a political voice in government

(feared US expansionism would spread republicanism)

Drafted a series of Resolutions

Proposed that 2/3 Congress needed to
a)declare war
b)impose commercial restrictions
c)admission of new states
a one term President;

prohibiting successive Presidents

from the same state;

omit slaves from determining population;

(they were actually advocating the states rights theory)

They were branded as unpatriotic,
Federalist Party is finished

Consequences of the War

Peace on the Frontier was achieved for a full generation thus fostering westward expansion
Expansion = Natural Resources
= Technology
= Immigration

British blockade actually stimulated the growth of American business

Spirit of Nationalism throughout US

Isolationism- US is doing their own thing, independent from Europe


The Era of Good Feeling

lasted from the end of the
War of 1812 to the election of 1824

-lack of an operational 2 party system

A)The Federalist Collapse - due to their behavior during the war

B)New Leadership - new, younger group of political leaders, emphasis on a stronger national government

C)Nationalism - war united Americans however Sectionalism began to spread

1. East- commerce and industry
2. South- large plantations
3. West- small farms

conflicting issues of
tariffs, banking, internal improvements, slavery

Depression of 1819 - each section demanded new laws(special interest)

D)Political Nationalism

Madison's annual report to Congress, the following labeled as the
American System
(For the benefit of all Americans)

1. A larger military establishment
a) regular army of 10,000
Naval expansion West Point

b) a protective tariff
Tariff of 1816 - sought to protect small industries started before the War of 1812
-British sought to bankrupt American industry by the sale of cheap goods
*Chief opposition came from the South

c) internal improvements
Roads and Canals, improved transportation and communication west of the Appalachian Mountains
Reasons - binding the east and west and improving trade; aiding expansion
- The Northeast and Deep South

"Should be done and financed locally, not nationally. Internal improvements were considered unconstitutional"!

d) national bank
-Bank was not re-chartered in 1811.
-State banks issued own weak currency
-Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun favored it for the purpose of national unity.

1. Chartered for 20 years
2. government deposits
3. branches throughout the country

Bonus Bill
- proposed by Calhoun in 1816
Money allotted for internal improvements coming from banks charter(fee - 1.5mil)
-vetoed by Madison

Erie Canal completed in 1825 by NYS

Election of 1816-1820
Republican victories for Monroe

Monroe level headed, fought in the Revolutionary War, Constitutional Convention, Louisiana Purchase

John Quincy Adams - Sec of State

Rush-Bagot - 49' parallel boundary between the US and Canada, largest unfortified inter-national boundary in the world, courtesy of Secretary of State John Quincy Adams

Spain and Florida

Andrew Jackson was commissioned to control Indian attacks on American settlements from east Florida. Jackson took it upon himself to turn Florida into a conquered province.

The US is embarrassed by action and there is talk of war with Spain and UK.

Monroe's Cabinet is calling for Jackson's head.

John Quincy Adams recognizes that Spain cannot control area, backs Andy

Adams-Onis Treaty - Spain would get its debt to American shippers paid by the US Government(5mil)

America's Louisiana Purchase land holdings now are defined and stretch to the Pacific.

Panic of 1819
Largely due to over speculation of western land. National Bank involved
add rapid and reckless business practices =
deflation, bankruptcies, bank
failures and debtor prisons

*John Marshall's Decisions*

The Missouri Compromise, 1820
Better traveling conditions caused western expansion - Cumberland Rd.
Maryland - Illinois

Missouri applied for statehood;
(first of the Louisiana Purchase)

*from 1788 - 1820, north grew much faster than south, except there was always balance in Senate

Slavery always an issue, furthers sectionalism

Tallmadge Amendment - freeze on slavery in Missouri, gradual emancipation.

South in uproar, amendment defeated

Missouri Compromise - Henry Clay

Missouri enters as a slave state
Maine(Mass)enters as a free state

In the unorganized territory of the Louisiana Purchase, at 36',30' the southern boundary of Missouri, there would be no slavery north of the boundary

Everyone satisfied - 34 years

The morality of the South's "peculiar institution" was an issue that could not be swept under the rug.

Compromise is the true genius of the American Republic. When Compromise broke down, we fought a Civil War

@Origins of the Monroe Doctrine

Spanish colonies in South America revolted from Spain by 1821 and declared their Independence

Spain refused to recognize their freedom but the US gave formal recognition to the new republics

The Holy Alliance put down democratic revolutions in order to restore monarchies after Napoleon

* US wanted to see democracy in Western Hemisphere

* US wanted Europe out of the west

* Commercial desire to trade with South America

* Russia - very aggressive around Alaskan Territory, looking for a Pacific window

The British kept a watchful eye on the Holy Alliance

Britain wanted to trade with the new nations and wanted to issue a joint declaration, warning European powers not to intervene in South America

Jefferson and Madison supported an alliance with the British!!

John Quincy Adams wanted no part of this agreement

He correctly advised Monroe that an alliance with the UK at this time would be self-defeating and hamper American growth and expansion.

He felt that British would want to keep their South American trade at almost any cost and would side with us anyway

He felt that a nationalistic decree would prevent further interference

(and it could be issued behind the power of the British Navy)

The Monroe Doctrine
(a document of self-defense)

* The American continents are closed to "future colonization" by Europe

* Europe must stay out of affairs of new world nations

* The United States would stay out of European affairs


Europe was annoyed by the declaration but England supported it.
(the British Navy had to enforce it)

The Tsar halted his advancement prior to the release of the doctrine
*Russo-American Treaty of 1824*

Respect for American foreign policy