Salerno's Classroom Celebrates America!

U.S. History Chapters 1, 2, 3

AP Government Summer Assignment
AP Chapters 1,2
AP Chapter 3
AP Chapter 4
AP Chapter 5
AP Chapter 6
AP Chapter 7
AP Chapter 8
AP Chapter 9
AP Chapter 10
AP Chapter 11
AP Chapter 12
AP Chapter 13
AP Chapter 14
AP Chapter 15
AP Chapter 16
U.S. History Chapters 1, 2, 3
U.S. History Chapter 4
U.S. History Chapter 5
U.S. History Chapter 6
U.S. History Chapter 7
U.S. History Chapter 8
U.S. History Chapter 9
U.S. History Chapter 10
U.S. History Chapter 11
U.S. History Chapter 12
U.S. History Chapter 13
U.S. History Chapter 14
U.S. History Chapters 16,17,18
U.S. History Chapters 19,20,21
U.S. History Chapters 22,23
U.S. History Chapters 24,25
U.S. History Chapters 26,27
U.S. History Chapters 28,29,30
U.S. History Chapter 31
U.S. History Chapter 32
U.S. History Chapter 33
US Government Chapters 1,2
US Government Chapter 3
US Government Chapters 10,11,12
US Government Chapters 13,14
US Government Chapter 18
US Govt Chapters 19,20,21
Remembering 9/11/01
The Civil Rights Movement
Economics Chapters 1,2,3
Eco Chapt 9
Eco Chapters 6,7,8
Eco Chapt 13
Eco Chapter 15
Eco Chapt 21


Discovery of a New World to 1763

Chapters 1,2 & 3

225 million years ago - 1 super continent

No. America mountain ranges
Sierra Nevada
Coast Range

Ice Age - left America shaped the way we
Know it today (10,000 years ago)

* Land /Bridge Theory *

The Earliest Americans


Makers of America : The Iroquois

Europe and the Age of Exploration

Crusades Renaissance Exploration


Political - breakdown of fuedalism
skilled workers
middle class
uneven distribution of wealth

Economic - need for more raw materials
New products
Merchant class
Expansion of trade

Social - discontent

Technology - Mapping
Portolan Charts

Phonecians Vikings Portuguese

The Economic System of the Age of Expoloration - Mercantilism

Economic theory - a nations wealth is based upon its supply of gold and silver

1. nation must be self-sufficient
2. favorable balance of trade
3. need for colonies (raw material and markets)
4. colonies are subordinate to mother country
5. all major profits go back to mother country

Spanish Exploration

Christopher Columbus
*motive - an all water western route to Asia
(proving the world was round)

*reasons - cheap, safe , practicle route

Studied journies of Marco Polo
Bartholomew Dias
Vasco de Gama

* Columbus was an expert navigator who knew how to read currents and sail favorably with wind

Discovery of the New World=Space Travel
The death and destruction of existing Native Americans and their culture

Spanish Colonization:  Gold, God, Glory

Encomienda, hacienda  our Spanish legacy (names)

French Colonization
religious problems, trade (eventually Huguenots to New Rochelle)

-(Italian) sailed for French Merchants

Jacque Cartier
3 voyages to the new world including
to the center of continent

St Lawrence Great Lakes

1542 settlement unsuccessful-abandoned
*trappers and fur trade continued to come

Samuel de Champlain
New France - Quebec 1608

-trappers and traders continued to build posts and forts along waterways

-managed to go behind British Colonies
claimed large sections of land,
sparsely populated

Dutch - The Netherlands
- merchants and traders of the world
- Calvinist - great work ethic
- perfect fit Calvinism and Capitalism
- Henry Hudson (New York area)
- Lost colony to British, 1664

British Colonization

John Cabot (Giovanni Cabotto) Find a Northwest Passage to the Orient

His crew was a unique blend of adventurers and businessmen

Sir Humphrey Gilbert
1566 - "A Discourse of a Discoverie for a passage to Cataia"

1583 - Newfoundland
-managed to get Queen E's ok not successful

1582 - Richard Hakluyt calls for an empire in New World

1585 - Sir Walter Raleigh (Gilberts half brother) Roanoke Island
joint stock company
*lost in the wilderness

1588 - Spanish Armada defeated British master the No. Atlantic
dominance of ocean travel

Virginia Company of London
-joint stock company, 104 men, 4 boys

Jamestown, 1607
almost destroyed(no cooperation)
1608 - Captain John Smith takes over
-settlement rebuilt, refocused

colonists were inexperienced, many died

Pocahontas and John Smith

*she marries John Rolfe
(becomes the father of tobacco industry)

Black Africans eventually came as
indentured servants and slaves

Character of American Settlers

many were misfits - malcontents
social outcasts
political problems
religious dissenters

( added together = heart of a Revolutionary)

Plymouth 1620

The Pilgrims
- separatists from moderate Puritanism
- 1/3 lived in Netherlands (Dutch Reformed)
- afraid of losing English identity
-permission to sail to Virginia on Mayflower
-landed in New England, decided to stay

* Mayflower Compact

William Bradford - Governor for 31 years

-again, settlers not prepared for wilderness
although very brave and hard working

Squanto -helped out when times were tough

Providence!! Thanksgiving - harvest crops

Massachusetts Bay Colony - 1630
Puritans under New England Company
Later they became independent

John Winthrop - Governor
"arm of God and the church"

Blue Laws…….very uptight people

Roger Williams broke away and purchased
Rhode Island from Indians

The story of Anne Hutchinson - dissenter……woman

The Three Types of British Colonies

Royal Colonies - by 1775
under direct control of English Crown

(8) King named governor - Legislature

Proprietary Colonies
land grants to proprietor
King ->Proprietor -> Governor

Charter Colonies
settled and governed by colonists
with King's permission
Power held by the colonists themselves

New England Colonies
*dominated by Puritans
*labor - indentured servants
*small farms due to rocky soil
*diversified economy

Beginning of "triangular trade" of rum, molasses, slaves operated between ports of New England, Africa, and West Indies

Middle Atlantic Colonies
*Anglican Church is very strong
*Moderate sized farms
*diversified economy
*labor - indentured servants

Plantation Colonies
*Separatists, Anglicans
(Maryland - Catholic)
*large farms, staple crops
fertile soil, river systems

1720's - 250,000 people
1765 - 2.25 million people
growth encouraged to meet need for labor
immigration of English speaking immigrants with similar customs encouraged

66% English
20% Slaves
6% Scotch Irish
5% German
3% other

The Great Awakening 1730's & 1740's
spiritual awakening of religion in colonies

Jonathan Edwards - affirmed complete dependence on God's grace for salvation
"Hell is paved with skulls of non-baptized children"

George Whitefield
"divine omnipotence, human helplessness"


-emphasis on direct, emotive spirituality
-Congregationalists and Presbyterians split over this issue and joined Baptists
-competition in American Churches
-encouraged missionary work among the Black Slaves and Indians

-new light centers of education
Princeton, Brown, Rutgers, Dartmouth

joining Harvard, William and Mary, Yale

* Ben Franklin - Poor Richard's Almanac
Dr. Franklin closest to title of Scientist

1734-35 Freedom of speech in colonies
- John Peter Zenger and seditious libel charges of the NY Governor

Who is going to dominates No. America?
English French Spanish

Wars in Europe will decide America's fate
Treaty of Utrecht 1713
gives England the French settlement of Acadia (Nova Scotia)

meantime in America Indian Problems in Colonies

French-inspired Indian massacres on British colonial frontiers Schenectady NY
and Deerfield Mass

Albany Plan 1754
- Ben Franklin for the 13 colonies to unite when dealing with Indians (Iroquois) and to act as one body. Iroquois sat on Council

1754 - George Washington's Virginia militia fires upon French troops outside of Fort Duquesne starting a global conflict

1755 British uproot 4,000 Acadians from Nova Scotia. They scatter as far south as Louisiana and are now called Cajuns

The French and Indian War (1756-1763)
Seven Years War

British Gen Braddock badly defeated outside of Fort Duquesne leaving the frontier unguarded

In NY - Fort William Henry
Fort Ticonderoga

Last of the Mohicans
James Fenimore Cooper

In UK- William Pitt reorganized Britain into a World Power

Battle of Quebec - Wolfe v Montcalm
-both mortally wounded as French are defeated and surrender the city

Peace of Paris
France cedes Canada and land east of Miss
Spain gets land west(Louisiana)

British are masters of eastern portion of America

Colonials expand into frontier
(West of the Appalachians)

Pontiacs Rebellion
after war F & I War, some 200,000 Indians became restless and united under Ottawa Chief Pontiac.

Indians wipe out all but 3 Forts in area
Pontiac lays siege to Detroit

British commander orders blankets infected with smallpox distributed to Indians

Indians are decimated and pacified

By 1763, settlers such as Daniel Boone go into Tennessee and Kentucky

Proclamation of 1763 prohibited American colonials from westward expansion into Indian land