Salerno's Classroom Celebrates America!
AP Chapter 13
AP Government Summer Assignment
AP Chapters 1,2
AP Chapter 3
AP Chapter 4
AP Chapter 5
AP Chapter 6
AP Chapter 7
AP Chapter 8
AP Chapter 9
AP Chapter 10
AP Chapter 11
AP Chapter 12
AP Chapter 13
AP Chapter 14
AP Chapter 15
AP Chapter 16
U.S. History Chapters 1, 2, 3
U.S. History Chapter 4
U.S. History Chapter 5
U.S. History Chapter 6
U.S. History Chapter 7
U.S. History Chapter 8
U.S. History Chapter 9
U.S. History Chapter 10
U.S. History Chapter 11
U.S. History Chapter 12
U.S. History Chapter 13
U.S. History Chapter 14
U.S. History Chapters 16,17,18
U.S. History Chapters 19,20,21
U.S. History Chapters 22,23
U.S. History Chapters 24,25
U.S. History Chapters 26,27
U.S. History Chapters 28,29,30
U.S. History Chapter 31
U.S. History Chapter 32
U.S. History Chapter 33
US Government Chapters 1,2
US Government Chapter 3
US Government Chapters 10,11,12
US Government Chapters 13,14
US Government Chapter 18
US Govt Chapters 19,20,21
Remembering 9/11/01
The Civil Rights Movement
Economics Chapters 1,2,3
Eco Chapt 9
Eco Chapters 6,7,8
Eco Chapt 13
Eco Chapter 15
Eco Chapt 21


Chapter 13


Voting and Elections


Our system of electing our representatives enables the people to speak


Every Presidential Election Year or

                   Mid-Term Elections


Federal, State, Local

= 500,000 officials elected



Who Votes?

Many factors -       1992 Elections

eg. women vote more than men



But…, “Will there be more women    candidates for political office?”





Voter Attitudes

*        the more education, the more likely you vote


*        partisanship---->vote

*        degree of interest in campaign

will cause voter turnout


*        Politically savvy people vote


*        sense of civic duty


Campaign Issues

Position Issues- when candidates have opposing views on a specific issue(s)


Valance Issues – linked or shared views






The Sociological Factors


Class of 2000!!!!! Republicans - rich?

Also in 2002


Democrats - education?


Catholics, Jews, Protestants


*        many  factors determine who gets the vote


age, gender gap, race, politics



1980 Reagan 51% popular vote in the south



The Psychological factors


*        party identification

*        candidates


*        issues


partisanship v ticket-splitting



Retrospective Voting

A voter’s evaluation of the performance of the party in power


Morris P. Fiorina  Retrospective voting

in American National Elections

"citizens have one comparatively hard bit of data: they know what life has been like during an incumbents administration".



Prospective Voting

A voter’s evaluation of a candidate based on what he pledges to do about an issue if elected




Voting Patterns

*        the four time zones can result in accurate predictions, however, the 2000 election and its time zones and the media coverage were questioned


Congressional Elections


a district could be twice as large as the one next to it.  They are unequal in size but….each has its own representative




lopsided majorities, illegal isolation


*sophomore surge*

next time around, a congressman is well known. The incumbency factor






The Presidency

"the great prize"


*executive leadership




The coattail effect v  backlash



Roosevelt 1932  coattail effect


Reagan        1980  (coattail by getting the senate)   


1986 -          midterms loses it,

 backlash because of Iran/Contra


Clinton wins in 1992

          Dems control Exec and both houses


1994 – midterms (backlash)


Clinton's job approval rating


All through

Travelgate, Whitewater, Haircut

Health Care, Govt shutdown

impeachment inquiry




*He was the first Democrat since Roosevelt not to receive a major challenge as an incumbent





Another Viewpoint    (voter realignment)


party realignment   - A shifting of party coalition in the electorate that remains in place for several elections


Political Scientists agree that they are

About thirty-six years apart


A critical election signals party realignment through voter polarization around new issues




*Prior to the Civil War. Whigs dissolving; the           Republican Party is formed


*The Populist radicalization of the

 Democratic Party strengthened the Republican


*Voters repudiate the Republican Party in favor of the Democrats in 1932


*Nixon winning as a minority candidate as the Democratic Party splits (south/north)


*Reagan 1980 ?  Southern Democrats dissatisfied with Jimmy Carter


*1994 ?  Republican unseat Democrats in mid-terms control of both houses


*2006 midterms?



Secular realignments    -        Based on demographic shifts to the political system








Primaries and Conventions


Primary Election

Where candidates are chosen by party members


1.       Winner –take – all Primary

          winning the whole state with a plurality

      Republican party favorite

(Democrats abandoned this in 1976 in favor of proportional representation primary and eliminating unit rule or a thin majority)


Superdelegates – are delegates to the Democratic National Convention who are elected party officials reason….stability


2. Proportional representation primary

You retain the percentage won in the primary and add it to your tally


3. Proportional representation with bonus delegates added to each district winner


4. The Caucus

          party members meet in small groups throughout a state to select the party’s delegates to the national convention


*Front Loading

  the tendency of states to choose an early date      on the calendar to run their primary


*Regional Primary

A PROPOSAL to divide country into six geographical districts where states in each region run their elections the same day



closed primary

- party registered voters pick candidates


open primary

- in some states, anyone can vote for candidates


Crossover voting

Participation in primary by a non-affiliate



An organized attempt by voters of one party to influence the results of the other party


Blanket Primary

A primary in which voters may cast ballots in [either party’s primary but not both.  Can do it on a office to office basis


Runoff Primary

A second primary election between the two major vote getters of the first primary


Nonpartisan Primary

A primary used to select candidates regardless of party affiliate


General Election

An election where the voters select candidates to fill public office



Permanent registration

a voter registers once in his district


Periodic registration

a voter registers once a year


(North Dakota  - no registration


Why is there voter apathy?


1960 – 62%


1996-  48.8%


Easier or no registration =   more voters


1993 -Clinton "motor voter" bill


*enables people to register

when applying for a driver's license;


      *public assistance agencies;*military service.


1996 - 11 million more voters

      Electing the President


          2000- only 51%


          2004 – 59%






The Electoral College


The Electoral College - The means of choosing the American President


The Framers felt that the common man wasn't qualified enough to elect a president.  They feared special interest and partisanship.


(System seems archaic, was designed before our Dual Party System developed)


a)            protection against the tyranny of the majority

b)      keep standards voting high

c)       not totally in the hands of the states




however, the states are heard because we are a Republic, In a system of Federalism


Presidential electors,

who cast their votes in a  Federal Election,

are chosen by methods determined in each state.    

State Legislature/  party majority



Major defects of the

Electoral College process


1)                Winner take all theory, even if the vote is close in a specific state


2)       Not casting proper vote


3)                In a 3 party race, a candidate with a small percentage of the popular vote could be elected if he has support in the

House of Representatives


Amendments proposed

*Electoral votes be cast by existing            Congressional District.

bb*Awarding the proper percentage to each   candidate


Another method of reform

* Same method of electoral votes

   for each District (to be cast later)

* Each district is a mini election

* most district wins gets the ( +2 , senate)

*Tiebreaker – Popular Vote for the (+2)


you would feel that your candidate could win your district. 

Encourages participation

(They would still have to cast their ballots on election day)


reinforces 1 man, 1 vote


Problem: Amending process

Has to pass through state legislatures = 37 states


Maine and Nebraska exceptions

Each district has an elector and the state has 2 others over-all


Every state could do this

(the Constitution permits it)




The National Political Party’s Grip

on the respective Red and Blue States