Salerno's Classroom Celebrates America!

U.S. History Chapter 14

AP Government Summer Assignment
AP Chapters 1,2
AP Chapter 3
AP Chapter 4
AP Chapter 5
AP Chapter 6
AP Chapter 7
AP Chapter 8
AP Chapter 9
AP Chapter 10
AP Chapter 11
AP Chapter 12
AP Chapter 13
AP Chapter 14
AP Chapter 15
AP Chapter 16
U.S. History Chapters 1, 2, 3
U.S. History Chapter 4
U.S. History Chapter 5
U.S. History Chapter 6
U.S. History Chapter 7
U.S. History Chapter 8
U.S. History Chapter 9
U.S. History Chapter 10
U.S. History Chapter 11
U.S. History Chapter 12
U.S. History Chapter 13
U.S. History Chapter 14
U.S. History Chapters 16,17,18
U.S. History Chapters 19,20,21
U.S. History Chapters 22,23
U.S. History Chapters 24,25
U.S. History Chapters 26,27
U.S. History Chapters 28,29,30
U.S. History Chapter 31
U.S. History Chapter 32
U.S. History Chapter 33
US Government Chapters 1,2
US Government Chapter 3
US Government Chapters 10,11,12
US Government Chapters 13,14
US Government Chapter 18
US Govt Chapters 19,20,21
Remembering 9/11/01
The Civil Rights Movement
Economics Chapters 1,2,3
Eco Chapt 9
Eco Chapters 6,7,8
Eco Chapt 13
Eco Chapter 15
Eco Chapt 21


"With Malice Toward None"

Chapter 14
Post Civil War Period

[The rebuilding of the South
physically and spiritually]


1) Economy was thriving;
industry boomed because of wartime production

2) population increased -
(1860-65) - 800,000 immigrants

3) Consolidated industry
Finance and Labor

1867 - Expansionism
The Purchase of Alaska Seward's Icebox


1) Cities were destroyed, leveled
Richmond, Atlanta, Charlotte

2) Transportation-

Railroads and Roads were destroyed

3) Plantations - economic system of the south was destroyed

4) Financial Structure - wiped out

5) Loss of population - decimated the young white male

6) Social Organizations -
churches, schools, local govts, all destroyed

7) Labor force disrupted-
free Blacks Total breakdown of morale, loss of physical strength and natural resources.

Southern spirit was alive, even after the total devastation


Lincoln's Reconstruction Plan
-lenient on the South;

-offered a pardon to Southerners who took an oath to support the Constitution

-Southern State Governments would be recognized if
a) abolished slavery
b) 10% of the 1860 vote took a vote of loyalty to the Union


Radical Republicans
(Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner)

-argued that Southern States rebelled and committed State suicide

-they were no longer part of the Union - conquered provinces, ergo their fate would be decided by US Congress.

a) wanted to punish white southerners
(military rule was extended)

b) wanted to give Blacks a chance to be treated fairly

c) endorsed the Wade Davis Bill
(ironclad oath with provisions for new state constitutions to be drawn)
Lincoln refused to sign it

Radicals Motivation
1) The South would try to restore slavery
2) Seek revenge
3) The new Black Vote

Johnson's Reconstruction Plan

Created without consulting Congress

-disenfranchised southerners who
had taxable property worth at least 20K

-ordered states to reorganize their governments

-Repeal their Ordinances of Secession

-Reject all Confederate debt

-Require the southern states to ratify the 13th Amendment

By December 1865,
Johnson recognized all of the 11 confederate states and prepared to watch them come back into Congress


Freedmen's Bureau
Created to help newly freed Blacks survive as free people.

Greatest success: Education

Problem was in its operation; were white-supremacists deciding the fate of former slaves?

*Military Reconstruction Act (1867)
Divided the South into 5 districts,
each supervised by a General

When they finally left after the re-organization of state govts, control was passed to
white "Redeemer" or "Home Rule" regimes

Andrew Johnson - Tailor - President
*Well intentioned, but stubborn

Andrew Johnson's Impeachment

Radicals despised Johnson(southerner)

-passed the Tenure of Office Act
(the President cannot remove anyone from office without the Senate's consent)

Secretary of War - Edwin Stanton (Radical Republican) worked against Johnson.

- Johnson fired him to test Act
Congress brought Impeachment Proceedings against him
35 Senators voted guilty
19 Senators not guilty
(1 vote less than 2/3 majority)


Results - Reconstruction
Scalawags and Carpetbaggers
(resented by the South)

2-Black Senators
About a dozen Black Congressmen

Federal Level

Johnson's struggle with the Radical
Republicans clouded the effects of the 13th 14th and 15th Amendments

(The Women's movement was passed over and conditions remained the same)

State and Local Levels created a "Solid South" (Democratic)

Black Codes-
resembled the old slave codes of antebellum South

1) Poll Taxes
2) Literacy Tests
3) Grandfather Clauses

Jim Crow Laws (segregation)
enforced by the KKK

Force Acts 1870 helped but could not stop the intimidation

Effects of Reconstruction

Created solid Democratic South

a) Blacks found themselves in a segregated society. No real opportunities for social and economic upward mobility

b) Federal confirmation of segregation
Plessy v Ferguson (1896)

c) Whites gained complete control of south.
Free Blacks did not improve their status

Ulysses S. Grant - Election of 1868

Supported in North; not in South
(Black vote put him over the top)

Great General - clueless president
Tried, but unsuccessful in stopping the White Supremacists

Elected again in 1872

*Credit Mobilier Scandal

*Salary Grab

Election of 1876
Rutherford B. Hayes -
Union General and reform governor of Ohio

Samuel J. Tilden - Governor of NY
who with Thomas Nast(Harper's Weekly)
helped to bring down the corrupt regime of "Boss Tweed" and his political machine Tammany Hall

*185 Electoral Votes were needed*

Late on Election day, Tilden - 184

Problem - 20 electoral votes were in
question, including 3 Rep Southern States of
So. Carolina, Fla., LA

Bigger Problem - The Political makeup of Congress.
(Pres. of Senate - Rep)

Electoral Commission formed
5-Senators, 5 Congressman, 5 Justices
Political makeup - 7Dems, 7Rep, 1 Ind
The Independent Judge happened to win an election to the Senate and had to be replaced. Only Justices left were Republicans. Hayes was the winner

Still, election results had to be approved in both Houses
A Deal was Cut:
1. Federal Troops would finally leave the South and end Radical Rep Governments in SC, Fla, LA

2. At least one Southerner would get a Cabinet post

3. Conservative So. Dems control over local affairs

4. He would support Southern physical improvements

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