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AP Chapter 12

AP Government Summer Assignment
AP Chapters 1,2
AP Chapter 3
AP Chapter 4
AP Chapter 5
AP Chapter 6
AP Chapter 7
AP Chapter 8
AP Chapter 9
AP Chapter 10
AP Chapter 11
AP Chapter 12
AP Chapter 13
AP Chapter 14
AP Chapter 15
AP Chapter 16
U.S. History Chapters 1, 2, 3
U.S. History Chapter 4
U.S. History Chapter 5
U.S. History Chapter 6
U.S. History Chapter 7
U.S. History Chapter 8
U.S. History Chapter 9
U.S. History Chapter 10
U.S. History Chapter 11
U.S. History Chapter 12
U.S. History Chapter 13
U.S. History Chapter 14
U.S. History Chapters 16,17,18
U.S. History Chapters 19,20,21
U.S. History Chapters 22,23
U.S. History Chapters 24,25
U.S. History Chapters 26,27
U.S. History Chapters 28,29,30
U.S. History Chapter 31
U.S. History Chapter 32
U.S. History Chapter 33
US Government Chapters 1,2
US Government Chapter 3
US Government Chapters 10,11,12
US Government Chapters 13,14
US Government Chapter 18
US Govt Chapters 19,20,21
Remembering 9/11/01
The Civil Rights Movement
Economics Chapters 1,2,3
Eco Chapt 9
Eco Chapters 6,7,8
Eco Chapt 13
Eco Chapter 15
Eco Chapt 21

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Chapter 12


Political Parties



Where do they come from?


What do they do?



James Madison In The Federalist No. 10 predicted the task of regulating conflicting economic interests would involve


"the spirit of party and faction in the necessary and ordinary operation of government."




George Washington "baneful effects of the spirit of party"




Alexander Hamilton - the Federalists


Thomas Jefferson  -


(the Republicans)



Era of Good Feeling


1824 - Democratic-Republicans split                     


(Clay, Webster, Harrison)


1828 Andrew Jackson - Democrats


Democrats v Whigs



1854 - Republican Party - Whigs, Free soilers, anti-slave Dems

opposed the expansion of slavery


Democrats were torn apart on slavery issue


1860- the Party of Lincoln         elects a candidate



1870s - Grand Old Party -

GOP = Republican Party


Political Patronage and the Civil Service System


Democratic Party - "solid south"


Big City Party Organizations



1884 and 1892 -

Democrats elect Grover Cleveland



Populist Party - Free Silver

James B. Weaver

Wm. Jennings Bryan



1901 - 1909  Theodore Roosevelt(coalition of Progressives)


1912 -

Bull Moose v Conservatives      Wilson's Democrats


1920 - Back to Normalcy

- Warren G. Harding

Calvin Coolidge

Herbert Hoover


1932 - The New Deal -

Franklin D. Roosevelt, Democrat


1948 - Harry S Truman


Issue-oriented Politics

          Civil rights, Voting, taxes



1952 - Dwight D. Eisenhower


1960 - JFK and the New Frontier



1964 - LBJ v Barry Goldwater


1968 - Nixon


1976 - Carter reunified                        Democratic Party


1980 - Reagan and Republicans control Senate


Still 34 state governorships,

House of Representatives


1988 - Bush

- Democrats control both Houses


1992 - Democrat Bill Clinton     elected with

control of both Houses

1994 -

Republicans control both Houses 


Clinton wins again in 1996

Republicans retain control of both houses


2000 – Bush wins and retains control of both houses


State governors are

26R/24D  2002










What is a Political Party?


A group of office holders, candidates, activists, and voters who identify with a group label and seek to elect to public office individuals who run under that label




Frank J. Sorauf, Political Parties in the American System


-        the nature of a political party is somewhat in

"the eye of the beholder."



*Party Leaders outside government - control the party machinery and serve as an important power base.  eg.  William L. Ward



*party activist - perform the day to day party business

Organizational Party – the staff


*Political Consultant

Professional who manages campaigns and political advertisements



*Party Leaders in Government - the "point men" of the agenda


Governmental Party –

The office holders of a party


President - Congress



Governor - state legislatures


Mayor - Councilman




Party in the Electorate

The voters

who consider themselves associated with the party



Major Political Party -

a broadly based coalition that attempts to gain control of government by winning an election


*carrying out their agenda - party whips round up party votes


The American System of Presidential Election


In V.O. Key Jr's.,  Politics, Parties, and Pressure Groups

*        Parties serve as an essential function in the management of succession to power









Role of Political Parties

in the US


Manage transfer of power


choice to voters


Act as bridge between government and voters


recruit candidates for office


reconcile conflicting interests in society


staff government and run it


link all branches of government





The Presidential type Government in America fits quite well with the Dual Party System

the electoral college system

the winner take all theory



*        A successful presidential candidate must have the support of a broad coalition




At the National Level

(National Party Platform)


Democrats - friendly towards labor, regulation, diversity


Republicans - business, free enterprise,economic conservatism




Austin Ranney

We are approaching a

"no-party system"


presidential candidates agenda very similar




One-Partyism – one party dominates and wins virtually all contests.  (solid south)


Split-ticket voting

The educated voter does not vote strictly party line






Democrats                      v                 Republicans


The Dualist Theory – there will always be the two-party system, regardless of splintered system




What are their

philosophical differences?



Their origins;

What were they;

Who are they today;




Frank Sorauf in 1984      

Party Politics in America


*        Democrats see themselves as the working class


*        Republicans see themselves as the middle class





Gender                  -->               influence

Religion                                             elections







Who controls the National Party?


The President



The Party Chairman


                                       Highest Ranking elected official


DNC           and              RNC Committees



The National Convention

ba carnival, boring?


Nelson W. Polsby in 1983

Consequences of Party Reform

National conventions survive primarily as spectacle



Deals have already been cut; candidates have been chosen



1790s-1824 Congressional Caucus


1831-1908                       "Classic"

Convention System

(smoky rooms, party bosses)



1912-1968                                "Mixed"

Convention System

(convention decides; party boss)



1972-present                             Presidential


(done deal by convention time)




A forum for the gifted speaker


Keynote Address will set the tone for the convention




Will Rogers on political parties



"I don't belong to an organized party,  I'm a Democrat"


                                                “Big Tent”


In Chicago the classic

1968 Democratic Convention

*the ultimate absolute circus. 


*new meaning to the term

self-destructive democrat


In 1972, they dropped unit rule

(state casts all of its votes)


for fear of "boss control"


In 1976, Democrats dropped the winner take all primary for a Presidential election in favor of proportional representation


(favors a Bill Clinton type)





The Question of the Century:

Are Parties Accountable to the Voters?


Will the candidate who gets elected keep his campaign promises?



Mixed opinions on this topic because we must examine the accountability of the voter




*Third-Partyism – will always arise in our dual party system


Reason:  different viewpoints within a party on the same issue