|AP Government Summer Assignment
|AP Chapters 1,2
|AP Chapter 3
|AP Chapter 4
|AP Chapter 5
|AP Chapter 6
|AP Chapter 7
|AP Chapter 8
|AP Chapter 9
|AP Chapter 10
|AP Chapter 11
|AP Chapter 12
|AP Chapter 13
|AP Chapter 14
|AP Chapter 15
|AP Chapter 16
|U.S. History Chapters 1, 2, 3
|U.S. History Chapter 4
|U.S. History Chapter 5
|U.S. History Chapter 6
|U.S. History Chapter 7
|U.S. History Chapter 8
|U.S. History Chapter 9
|U.S. History Chapter 10
|U.S. History Chapter 11
|U.S. History Chapter 12
|U.S. History Chapter 13
|U.S. History Chapter 14
|U.S. History Chapters 16,17,18
|U.S. History Chapters 19,20,21
|U.S. History Chapters 22,23
|U.S. History Chapters 24,25
|U.S. History Chapters 26,27
|U.S. History Chapters 28,29,30
|U.S. History Chapter 31
|U.S. History Chapter 32
|U.S. History Chapter 33
|US Government Chapters 1,2
|US Government Chapter 3
|US Government Chapters 10,11,12
|US Government Chapters 13,14
|US Government Chapter 18
|US Govt Chapters 19,20,21
|The Civil Rights Movement
|Economics Chapters 1,2,3
|Eco Chapt 9
|Eco Chapters 6,7,8
|Eco Chapt 13
|Eco Chapter 15
|Eco Chapt 21
The United States Begins
George Washington was unanimously elected President in 1789 by the Electoral College.
Adams had just returned from England.
He brought leadership and dignity to the office
and shaped it with every action.
Everything Washington did was a first
He shaped the executive office of the
American Presidency. He envisioned the office independent from the Legislature.
Washington did not want to make policy,
he wished to enforce it.
He only used his veto power twice
The creation of
the Presidents Cabinet.
Actually created by Congress to help the President perform his duties. There is nothing in the Constitution about the Cabinet,
Article I, Section 8 states that Congress has the power to pass laws and create offices that are
The President's Cabinet is a clear exercise of this power.
Congress passed the Judiciary Act
the creation of the Federal Court System.
Secretary of State - Jefferson
of Treasury - Hamilton
Secretary of War - Knox
Attorney General - Edmund Randolf
Postmaster General - Ben Franklin
*James Madison served as a principle adviser to Washington.
Madison was denied a seat in the Senate but
became a member of the House of Representatives.
Madison was not in favor of a Bill of Rights but realized it would
be necessary. Madison authored the individual protections from federal power including the important
Ninth and Tenth Amendments
The rise of Political Parties
Alexander Hamilton - Federalists
Government of the
rich an well-born
Strong Central Government,
organized, having close tie to Great Britain, and opposing the lawlessness
of the French Revolution.
Bring credibility to US with debt responsibility to new federal
1) fund a National Debt -
funding at Par - 54 Million both foreign and domestic debt
2) assume all
States debts from recent war- 20 million
smaller states loved it larger, wealthier states balked
Politics at work
- Get Virginia to agree. In return, new US Capital would be located on the Potomac
3) Bring in Revenue Higher duty
(Protective Tariff) Hamilton challenged the importance of agriculture and argued for an industrialized
No support from Congress or Merchants
sale of western lands
Excise Tax - on liquor
4) National Bank -
Bank of US govt, private investors provide $$
Created through a Loose or
Broad interpretation of the Constitution (Art I, Section 8, clause 18)
place to deposit
lend govt cash
fund new business
coin money- paper money
- Thomas Jefferson
A Party of farmers and laborers who advocated keeping the United States a Pastoral Land, God Fearing,
relying on the Elements.
Jefferson felt Hamilton's policies exploited the common man
1) a strict interpretation
protecting the rights of the States.
2) Very sympathetic to the French Revolution
Broad v Strict
interpretation of the Constitution. The once faction, or group, had evolved into a political party.
America's Two Party
US Foreign Policy
British Troops in Northwest
Spanish Borders Southwest
Great Britain and France go to war
-pressure within US to aid France
France - Treaty
of 1788 created a military alliance between France & US
The Impact of the French Revolution
Treaty died with the French king
Treaty made with French People ergo still in effect
- Treaty binding only if France attacked. US recognizes the French Republic.
The United States was in its early
years. Not united politically, weak militarily. Washington felt that we needed time to overcome our growing pains.
Proclamation 1793 - America's first isolationist policy, separating us from Old World Quarrels
At first welcomed by Jeffersonian Republicans but after outrageous behavior, asked to leave the States.
reasoned that the Treaty of 1788 benefited both countries.
US support of France during her war would only benefit
France and upset the balance of trade in Western Hemisphere
Jefferson opposed this decision and the manner in which
it was proposed. He resigns as Secretary of State
Foreign Policy problems
Great Britain - British
were seizing American ships in West Indies and impressed them into service aboard English ships.
They continued their
fur trade on the frontier and traded guns with the Indians.
Jeffersonians called for drastic action against Great
Jay Treaty - Experienced negotiator John Jay was a poor vantage point.
Hamilton's financial package
was dependent upon securing Anglo/American cooperation. This caused him to be soft on the British.
The British knew
British did agree to evacuate trading posts on American soil (via 1783) and pay damages on the recent seizures
of American ships. Nothing about future impressment or Indian trade.
Americans make good on pre-Revolutionary
Hamilton resigns as Sec. of Treasury
Washington Takes Beating In Press !!
To a divided
America it seemed like:
Northern merchants collected damages
Southerners paid debts to the British
Treaty of Greenville
Courtesy General "Mad Anthony" Wayne
Gave final recognition to the western American
Pinckney's Treaty- with Spain
American's receive recognition of her borders by Spain and confirmed
our right to navigate the Mississippi and deposit in New Orleans
Bottom Line -
-Washington keeps America out
-Expands and stabilizes the West
-Merchant Marine patrolled the seas
-America was on solid ground
Period is concluding
Washington's Farewell Address
(written and published by Hamilton)
the precedent of the two term President.
II.Warned against the baneful effects of party strife
with foreign powers
IV.Isolationism - Continental concerns only.
Election of 1796
ballot system was designed for a party-less election
Candidate with most votes became President, 2nd most became
Political Parties clouded the system.
Ballot 1 Ballot 2
John Adams Thomas Jefferson
Jefferson John Adams
A tie could occur or a diversion
Hamilton chose Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina to
He might appear as a VP candidate on all ballots and maybe have enough votes to become
Adams Federalist 71
Jefferson Dem/Republican 68
Pinckney Federalist 59
Adams recognized the move of Hamilton and they now became enemies
inherited Washington's cabinet
(second raters who took orders from Alexander Hamilton)
Relationship with Jefferson
Adams wanted to appoint James Madison the special envoy to France
Wolcott (Sec of Treasury) threatened
to resign, making Adams looking bad
Adams withdrew the appointment
still upset over the Jay Treaty and felt the Americans should honor the 1778 Treaty. They began to seize hundreds of American
Adams wanted to settle the problem.
XYZ Affair -American envoys in France
spokespersons XY&Z wanted bribe money and a price for negotiating with Talleyrand.
John Marshall walked away shocked
by the proposal
Reaction in America:
everyone shocked including the Jeffersonians
The Navy Department
was created expanding
the Three ship navy
The US Marine Corps is established
A state of undeclared war
existed between the US and France. About 80 ships were seized.
*France did not want it to be official
let Adams know that if he sent envoy again to France, they would be received properly
Adams agrees. He wants peace
Hamilton doesn't. He becomes jealous
of Adams' bipartisanship.
Adams sends envoy to France in 1800, they deal
with Napoleon Bonaparte
The Convention of 1800 divorces the US from the 1778 agreement but the US government has to
pay the claims of American shippers.
A successful, peaceful, settlement for now, pays off later
Keep the Federalists in power and silence party critics
Nullification Theory is born
Firm economic footing for US
2. Established credit for new nation
3. Foreign Affairs - No wars, isolationism
Election of 1800
Adams is hurt by a division in his party. Hamiltonians called for war against France.
opposed the Alien and Sed Acts
Published reports of Hamilton's displeasure of Adams (soft on France)
Adams ran with C.C. Pinckney and received 65 Electoral Votes
Jefferson received 73 Votes
received 73 Votes
Article II, Sec 1, para. 2 - a tie can only be broken by the House.
Inside House for
- Federalist saw the problem and
supported the more moderate Jefferson
was fixed in 1804 with the ratification of the 12 Amendment