Salerno's Classroom Celebrates America!

U.S. History Chapter 6

AP Government Summer Assignment
AP Chapters 1,2
AP Chapter 3
AP Chapter 4
AP Chapter 5
AP Chapter 6
AP Chapter 7
AP Chapter 8
AP Chapter 9
AP Chapter 10
AP Chapter 11
AP Chapter 12
AP Chapter 13
AP Chapter 14
AP Chapter 15
AP Chapter 16
U.S. History Chapters 1, 2, 3
U.S. History Chapter 4
U.S. History Chapter 5
U.S. History Chapter 6
U.S. History Chapter 7
U.S. History Chapter 8
U.S. History Chapter 9
U.S. History Chapter 10
U.S. History Chapter 11
U.S. History Chapter 12
U.S. History Chapter 13
U.S. History Chapter 14
U.S. History Chapters 16,17,18
U.S. History Chapters 19,20,21
U.S. History Chapters 22,23
U.S. History Chapters 24,25
U.S. History Chapters 26,27
U.S. History Chapters 28,29,30
U.S. History Chapter 31
U.S. History Chapter 32
U.S. History Chapter 33
US Government Chapters 1,2
US Government Chapter 3
US Government Chapters 10,11,12
US Government Chapters 13,14
US Government Chapter 18
US Govt Chapters 19,20,21
Remembering 9/11/01
The Civil Rights Movement
Economics Chapters 1,2,3
Eco Chapt 9
Eco Chapters 6,7,8
Eco Chapt 13
Eco Chapter 15
Eco Chapt 21


The United States Begins
Chapter 6

George Washington was unanimously elected President in 1789 by the Electoral College.

John Adams had just returned from England.
Elected Vice-President.

He brought leadership and dignity to the office and shaped it with every action.

Everything Washington did was a first

He shaped the executive office of the American Presidency. He envisioned the office independent from the Legislature.

Washington did not want to make policy,
he wished to enforce it.

He only used his veto power twice

The creation of
the Presidents Cabinet. Actually created by Congress to help the President perform his duties. There is nothing in the Constitution about the Cabinet, however,

Article I, Section 8 states that Congress has the power to pass laws and create offices that are
"necessary and proper".

The President's Cabinet is a clear exercise of this power.

Congress passed the Judiciary Act 1789 -
the creation of the Federal Court System.

The Cabinet:
Secretary of State - Jefferson
Secretary of Treasury - Hamilton
Secretary of War - Knox
Attorney General - Edmund Randolf
Postmaster General - Ben Franklin

*James Madison served as a principle adviser to Washington.

Madison was denied a seat in the Senate but became a member of the House of Representatives.

Madison was not in favor of a Bill of Rights but realized it would be necessary. Madison authored the individual protections from federal power including the important
Ninth and Tenth Amendments


The rise of Political Parties

Alexander Hamilton - Federalists
Government of the rich an well-born

Strong Central Government,
organized, having close tie to Great Britain, and opposing the lawlessness of the French Revolution.

Hamiltonian Finances
Bring credibility to US with debt responsibility to new federal govt

1) fund a National Debt -
funding at Par - 54 Million both foreign and domestic debt

2) assume all States debts from recent war- 20 million
smaller states loved it larger, wealthier states balked

Politics at work - Get Virginia to agree. In return, new US Capital would be located on the Potomac

3) Bring in Revenue Higher duty on imports

(Protective Tariff) Hamilton challenged the importance of agriculture and argued for an industrialized nation
No support from Congress or Merchants
sale of western lands

Excise Tax - on liquor

Whiskey Rebellion

4) National Bank -
Bank of US govt, private investors provide $$

Created through a Loose or Broad interpretation of the Constitution (Art I, Section 8, clause 18)

Banks job:
collect taxes;
provide safe place to deposit
lend govt cash
fund new business
coin money- paper money


Republican Party - Thomas Jefferson
A Party of farmers and laborers who advocated keeping the United States a Pastoral Land, God Fearing, relying on the Elements.

Jefferson felt Hamilton's policies exploited the common man

1) a strict interpretation -
protecting the rights of the States.

2) Very sympathetic to the French Revolution

Broad v Strict interpretation of the Constitution. The once faction, or group, had evolved into a political party.
America's Two Party System Begins


US Foreign Policy

British Troops in Northwest

Spanish Borders Southwest to Pacific

Great Britain and France go to war
-pressure within US to aid France

France - Treaty of 1788 created a military alliance between France & US

The Impact of the French Revolution

Hamilton - Treaty died with the French king

Jefferson -
Treaty made with French People ergo still in effect

Washington - Treaty binding only if France attacked. US recognizes the French Republic.

The United States was in its early years. Not united politically, weak militarily. Washington felt that we needed time to overcome our growing pains.

Neutrality Proclamation 1793 - America's first isolationist policy, separating us from Old World Quarrels

"Citizen" Edmond Genet

At first welcomed by Jeffersonian Republicans but after outrageous behavior, asked to leave the States.

Washington reasoned that the Treaty of 1788 benefited both countries.

US support of France during her war would only benefit France and upset the balance of trade in Western Hemisphere

Jefferson opposed this decision and the manner in which it was proposed. He resigns as Secretary of State

Foreign Policy problems

Great Britain - British were seizing American ships in West Indies and impressed them into service aboard English ships.

They continued their fur trade on the frontier and traded guns with the Indians.

Jeffersonians called for drastic action against Great Britain

Jay Treaty - Experienced negotiator John Jay was a poor vantage point.

Hamilton's financial package was dependent upon securing Anglo/American cooperation. This caused him to be soft on the British.

The British knew this!

British did agree to evacuate trading posts on American soil (via 1783) and pay damages on the recent seizures of American ships. Nothing about future impressment or Indian trade.

In return
Americans make good on pre-Revolutionary War debts.

Hamilton resigns as Sec. of Treasury

Washington Takes Beating In Press !!

To a divided America it seemed like:

Northern merchants collected damages
Southerners paid debts to the British


Treaty of Greenville

Courtesy General "Mad Anthony" Wayne

Gave final recognition to the western American borders.

Pinckney's Treaty- with Spain
American's receive recognition of her borders by Spain and confirmed our right to navigate the Mississippi and deposit in New Orleans

Bottom Line -

-Washington keeps America out of War
-Expands and stabilizes the West
-Merchant Marine patrolled the seas
-America was on solid ground
-Experimental Period is concluding

Washington's Farewell Address
(written and published by Hamilton)

I.He established the precedent of the two term President.

II.Warned against the baneful effects of party strife

III.Avoid alliances with foreign powers

IV.Isolationism - Continental concerns only.

Election of 1796
Electoral College ballot system was designed for a party-less election

Candidate with most votes became President, 2nd most became Vice-President.

Political Parties clouded the system.

Ballot 1 Ballot 2
John Adams Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson John Adams

A tie could occur or a diversion

Hamilton chose Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina to run for

He might appear as a VP candidate on all ballots and maybe have enough votes to become President.


Adams Federalist 71
Jefferson Dem/Republican 68
Pinckney Federalist 59
Burr Dem/Republican 30
Other 48

Adams recognized the move of Hamilton and they now became enemies

Adams inherited Washington's cabinet
(second raters who took orders from Alexander Hamilton)

Relationship with Jefferson was A-OK

Adams wanted to appoint James Madison the special envoy to France

Wolcott (Sec of Treasury) threatened to resign, making Adams looking bad

Adams withdrew the appointment

Foreign Affairs

France was still upset over the Jay Treaty and felt the Americans should honor the 1778 Treaty. They began to seize hundreds of American merchant vessels.

Adams wanted to settle the problem.

XYZ Affair -American envoys in France
-French spokespersons XY&Z wanted bribe money and a price for negotiating with Talleyrand.
John Marshall walked away shocked by the proposal

Reaction in America:
everyone shocked including the Jeffersonians

The Navy Department was created expanding
the Three ship navy

The US Marine Corps is established

A state of undeclared war existed between the US and France. About 80 ships were seized.

*France did not want it to be official
Talleyrand let Adams know that if he sent envoy again to France, they would be received properly

Adams agrees. He wants peace
Hamilton doesn't. He becomes jealous
of Adams' bipartisanship.

Adams sends envoy to France in 1800, they deal with Napoleon Bonaparte

The Convention of 1800 divorces the US from the 1778 agreement but the US government has to pay the claims of American shippers.

A successful, peaceful, settlement for now, pays off later

Alien and Sedition Acts
Keep the Federalists in power and silence party critics

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

Nullification Theory is born

Accomplishments of
Adams'& Federalists

1. Firm economic footing for US
2. Established credit for new nation
3. Foreign Affairs - No wars, isolationism

The Election of 1800

Adams is hurt by a division in his party. Hamiltonians called for war against France.

Adams opposed the Alien and Sed Acts

Published reports of Hamilton's displeasure of Adams (soft on France)

Another mistake:

Adams ran with C.C. Pinckney and received 65 Electoral Votes

Jefferson received 73 Votes
Burr received 73 Votes

Article II, Sec 1, para. 2 - a tie can only be broken by the House.

Inside House for months.
- Federalist saw the problem and
supported the more moderate Jefferson

This problem was fixed in 1804 with the ratification of the 12 Amendment