Salerno's Classroom Celebrates America!

U.S. History Chapter 12

AP Government Summer Assignment
AP Chapters 1,2
AP Chapter 3
AP Chapter 4
AP Chapter 5
AP Chapter 6
AP Chapter 7
AP Chapter 8
AP Chapter 9
AP Chapter 10
AP Chapter 11
AP Chapter 12
AP Chapter 13
AP Chapter 14
AP Chapter 15
AP Chapter 16
U.S. History Chapters 1, 2, 3
U.S. History Chapter 4
U.S. History Chapter 5
U.S. History Chapter 6
U.S. History Chapter 7
U.S. History Chapter 8
U.S. History Chapter 9
U.S. History Chapter 10
U.S. History Chapter 11
U.S. History Chapter 12
U.S. History Chapter 13
U.S. History Chapter 14
U.S. History Chapters 16,17,18
U.S. History Chapters 19,20,21
U.S. History Chapters 22,23
U.S. History Chapters 24,25
U.S. History Chapters 26,27
U.S. History Chapters 28,29,30
U.S. History Chapter 31
U.S. History Chapter 32
U.S. History Chapter 33
US Government Chapters 1,2
US Government Chapter 3
US Government Chapters 10,11,12
US Government Chapters 13,14
US Government Chapter 18
US Govt Chapters 19,20,21
Remembering 9/11/01
The Civil Rights Movement
Economics Chapters 1,2,3
Eco Chapt 9
Eco Chapters 6,7,8
Eco Chapt 13
Eco Chapter 15
Eco Chapt 21

Chapter 12
The Failure of the Politicians

Election of 1848
Polk does not seek re-election

Democrats and the Whigs do not confront
the problem of sectionalism

Issues not on either party's platform

Democrats - Lewis Cass no stance on slavery

Whigs - Zachary Taylor, who owned many slaves - no platform

Free-Soilers - Martin Van Buren
Free-Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor, Free Men

Taylor wins the election

Zachary Taylor- "Old Rough and Ready"

- James Polk referred to him as a narrow-minded bigot

- not a politician
- slave owner, but not sympathetic
- 40 years in army-very nationalistic

California Gold Rush ----> Sutter's Mill

Gold Rush adventurers, 49'ers came by Wagon Train;
Cape Horn; Panama

Population explosion in California

Taylor encourages the writing of a state constitution and application for statehood

In 1849
15 Free States
15 Slave States

All hell breaks loose!

Taylor meets with southern leaders who threaten secession

Angry Taylor responds that he would do anything to preserve the Union

7/4 1850- Washington Monument

Taylor has dessert, milk and cherries
-five days later he is dead

Millard Fillmore becomes President

Compromise of 1850
(January - September)

Problem - 15 slave, 15 Free
New Territories and statehood,
keeping the balance in the Senate

Key issue- the expansion of slavery

Key Players
- Daniel Webster, fierce nationalist from Massachusetts

- William Seward, antislavery Whig from New York

- John C. Calhoun, near death
(actually cannot read his speech)

- Henry Clay of Kentucky and his protege'
Stephen Douglass of Illinois

Southerners are ready to secede,
but Nashville Convention fails

Taylor dies - Fillmore is President

Fillmore was a good politician
His Cabinet quits;
he appoints Daniel Webster as Secretary of State

He supports Clay

Clay proposes the Compromise of 1850

-California is admitted as free state
-boundary of Texas was established
-Texas debt of 10 million was paid
-Popular Sovereignty in New Mex &Utah
-slave trade abolished in DC
-strict Fugitive Slave Law

Balance never again in Senate.
South had to closely watch Congress

Immigrants avoided south, settled in North and the West

Railroads gave free states economic superiority

-Strong Fugitive Slave Laws
Provision of the Compromise of 1850
Federal Marshall had to assist in the capture of runaway slaves

Northern abolitionists were furious and countered with the passing of State Liberty Laws which nullified the Fugitive Slave Laws (ironic)

Underground Railroad -

Harriet Tubman "Moses" series of safe houses and stopovers which would now re-route into Canada

Election of 1852
Franklin Pierce - Democrat who endorsed the Compromise (won in 27 out of 31 states)

Whigs - General Winfield Scott
Pierce wins big!

Gadsden Purchase -
puts final touches into Southern California

Ostend Manifesto - Belgium,
from Wm. Marcy to Pres. Pierce concerning Cuba

Pierce is branded a wild pro-slavery expansionist

Uncle Tom's Cabin -
Harriet Beecher Stowe
a Northerner who never experienced slavery first hand

She attacked the institution of slavery,
not the southern people

Situations and dialogue - unreal but very powerful.

300,000 copies sold - won people over

Kansas-Nebraska Act

Transcontinental Railroad Debate

Jefferson Davis - southern route to New Orleans

Stephan Douglas - mid-west(Chicago)

* repealed the Missouri Compromise
prohibiting slavery north of 36'30

* Kansas and Nebraska Territories would be organized along the principles of popular sovereignty

Fair for both, but......
Northerners were against the expansion of slavery because they felt it was morally incorrect and they did not want to live near or compete with Blacks

New Republican Party -
formed to resist the expansion of slavery
-saw it as a moral and political evil
-demanded the repeal of Fugitive Slave and
Kansas-Nebraska Acts

Congress 1854 - 108 New Repub
- 83 Democrats
- 43 Know -Nothings

Know-Nothings (American Party)
Platform - combat political influence of immigrants, especially R.Catholics

eventually absorbed by pro-slavery

Kansas Problems - free or slave
influence felt by both sides.

Thousands of pro-slavery Missourians
crossed border and voted illegally

Anti-Slavery Kansans drew up their own constitution and elected a free govt

President Pierce sided with the pro-slavery government

In Congress, Charles Sumner verbally attacks the Kansas issue and insults to Sen. Butler of So. Carolina.

Butler's cousin -
Congressman Preston S. Brooks beats him with cane!!

Bleeding Kansas
In response to popular sovereignty
North and South rushed into Kansas

May, 1856, pro-slavery sheriff led mob into anti-slavery area, sacking and burning the town

In an act of revenge, John Brown led a raid against pro-slavers.

They dragged 5 men from their beds
and split open their skulls.

Over the next few years, violence increased causing about 200 deaths.

Election of 1856

James Buchanan (popular Sovereignty)

Republican John Freemont - "Pathfinder of West"
- no slavery in terr
- admit a free Kansas

Know-Nothings Millard Fillmore

Buchanan carried all the Southern States
plus 5 Northern States

*Polk and Jackson on James Buchanan,
the new minister to Russia under Andy Jackson

* James K. Polk on Buchanan

"He is an able man, but in small matters without judgment. He sometimes acts like an old maid".

Polk did appoint him Sec of State

More Fuel on the Fire

Dred Scott v Sanford (1857)
Chief Justice Roger B. Taney's
decision rendered Scott a slave.

Political Consequences
-personal property, compromise, and popular sovereignty

Panic of 1857
Causes: California Gold
Over-speculation, railroads
over production of grain

*Producers of King Cotton felt secure

*Kansas again -Lecompton constitution

Pro-slavers draft it up, but a legitimate vote rejects it

Lincoln/Douglas Debates-
United State Senate 1858 - Illinois

Douglas was badly hurt by the Dred Scott Decision because of Popular Sovereignty.

Douglass admits he does not consider slavery morally wrong

North is now alienated!!

He argued against the Lecompton Const
thus alienating the South

Lincoln - self-educated lawyer

Not an abolitionist - slavery was wrong but should be contained and not allowed to spread in new territories

Congress had the right to prohibit slavery in the new territories

He did not believe in social or political
equality for Blacks


Douglas tried to smear Lincoln as a fanatical abolitionist

Freeport, Illinois

Lincoln asks of Douglas (after the Dred Scott Decision) what if the people of a territory should vote slavery down? Supreme Court said that they could not in the Decision.
Who would prevail?

The Douglas answer becomes the Freeport Doctrine

Douglas argued popular sovereignty his consistent position

Illinois backed him, but he alienates the South and his national prominence

Lincoln emerges as a Presidential prospect

John Brown and Harpers Ferry
"God's angry man"
"the meteor"

His radical actions caused the South to begin to organize their militia

Election of 1860

The Democratic National Convention in Charleston, SC

Stephen Douglas was primary candidate

Southern "fire-eaters" regarded him as a traitor

Entire body dissolved in confusion

Meet again in Baltimore

Northern Democrats nominate Douglas

Another break in the convention by "fire-eaters"
they nominate

John Breckinridge - Kentucky, moderate but favoring the expansion of slavery into the territories

Another middle of the road group organize the Constitutional Union Party.

They nominate John Bell of Tennessee.

Their slogan
"The Union, the Constitution, and the Enforcement of Laws."

Republican Convention in Chicago

William Seward v Abraham Lincoln
With less enemies Abe wins nomination

Branded as an abolitionist, he hated slavery but did not call for its end

Platform - free-soiler
non-extension of slavery
protective tariff

Democratic Party Split,
giving the election to the Republicans

Candidate Popular Electoral
Vote Vote

Lincoln 40% 180
Douglas 29% 12
Breckinridge 18% 72
Bell 13% 39

Lincoln is the winner, but....
-a minority President

60% voted for someone else

a sectional President
not allowed on the ballot for ten Southern States!

The Republicans won the executive
office but did not win the either House.

Their was no real threat of the Federal Government abolishing slavery where it existed.
(only an amendment could do it)

The Secessionist Exodus

Four days after the election
South Carolina's
state legislature voted to secede from the Union

During the next six weeks - 6 more
followed by four later. Total - 11

Feb, 1861 - they created the
Confederate States of America

In Montgomery, Alabama,
they chose Jefferson Davis of Miss. as Pres

All of this happened, Buchanan stood pat and did nothing

Lincoln would not take office until March 4, 1861

A failed Compromise - Dec, 1860

The Crittenden Amendment - 36'30
- a line of demarcation for slavery

*rejected by Lincoln

Jeff Davis to the Confederate Congress,
"all we want is to left alone".


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