Salerno's Classroom Celebrates America!

U.S. History Chapter 9

AP Government Summer Assignment
AP Chapters 1,2
AP Chapter 3
AP Chapter 4
AP Chapter 5
AP Chapter 6
AP Chapter 7
AP Chapter 8
AP Chapter 9
AP Chapter 10
AP Chapter 11
AP Chapter 12
AP Chapter 13
AP Chapter 14
AP Chapter 15
AP Chapter 16
U.S. History Chapters 1, 2, 3
U.S. History Chapter 4
U.S. History Chapter 5
U.S. History Chapter 6
U.S. History Chapter 7
U.S. History Chapter 8
U.S. History Chapter 9
U.S. History Chapter 10
U.S. History Chapter 11
U.S. History Chapter 12
U.S. History Chapter 13
U.S. History Chapter 14
U.S. History Chapters 16,17,18
U.S. History Chapters 19,20,21
U.S. History Chapters 22,23
U.S. History Chapters 24,25
U.S. History Chapters 26,27
U.S. History Chapters 28,29,30
U.S. History Chapter 31
U.S. History Chapter 32
U.S. History Chapter 33
US Government Chapters 1,2
US Government Chapter 3
US Government Chapters 10,11,12
US Government Chapters 13,14
US Government Chapter 18
US Govt Chapters 19,20,21
Remembering 9/11/01
The Civil Rights Movement
Economics Chapters 1,2,3
Eco Chapt 9
Eco Chapters 6,7,8
Eco Chapt 13
Eco Chapter 15
Eco Chapt 21


Chapter 9

*Election of 1824

Four men sought to succeed Monroe
and ran for President

William Crawford - 41 Electoral Votes
John Quincy Adams- 84 Electoral Votes
Andrew Jackson - 99 " "
Henry Clay - 37 " "

Vote went into the
House of Representatives (12th Amend)

*Top 3 Candidates only (Clay out)

-Crawford was ill (paralyzed)

Adams v Jackson

*Politics - Jackson was becoming popular in the West. Clay was still very influential in Congress.

Clay supported Adams because they had similar policies
(support of the American System)
Clay doubted Jackson's ability

Adams wins the election
-with Clay's support in the House of Reps

Political Results:

The Corrupt Bargain - Jackson's followers said that Adam's promised to make Clay his Secretary of State once elected.

There is no evidence ...
but it carried serious political consequences

John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay were discredited in the eyes of the American People

The Republican Party realigned itself

Jackson began to run for President in the next election

John Quincy Adams - very capable but unsuccessful leader

(Adams was a minority President, as states rights feelings were emerging)

He only made 12 Federal appointments

Brilliant, but tactless politician

*Ardent Nationalist;
refused to recognize state's rights activists

*First Annual Message to Congress
Adams calls for National Programs
*Roads, Canals, Navy, Schools Observatories


He Worked against Sectionalism


He refused to compromise; failing to listen to the people who elected him


Congress worked against him !!

Tariff of Abominations (1828)
Tariffs caused sectionalism

Jackson's followers purposely created an unfair bill

(extremely high revenues in the north,
very unfair to the south)

Playing both ends against the middle; hoping the tariff would be defeated

It Passed!
(to everyone's surprise)

Jackson said little on the Tariff

The Rise of the Common Man

Jeffersonian Democracy
- the people should be governed as little as possible

*Early US voting requirements
-W, M, Property

*The East controlled elections

*Candidates were chosen by
powerful party members in private caucus

Population grew - cities grew

*Twice as many males that voted in 1824 voted in 1828. East lost its grip and control of vote

People wanted a say in government and who their candidates would be

Newspapers, Conventions, Rallies

*Voting done on paper, printed ballots (not vocal)

*States began to remove restrictions by replacing the private caucus with state conventions
(Hotel Ballroom or Bar Room)

On the National Level, delegates chosen in state conventions would meet in national conventions to choose national candidates

New candidates - had to be elected
(not chosen)
- popular politician

Jacksonian Democracy-added whatever governing was to be done should be done directly by the people.
(coonskin congressmen)

The Election of 1828
Revolution of 1828

*Mud slinging campaign
Corrupt Bargain, Jackson's duels,
Rachel Jackson, Adam's salary

Jackson - 56% Pop Vote 178 Electoral
Adams - 44% " " 83 "

A victory for the lower classes of the northeast,
small property owners

sectional victory

The Election of the Peoples President

* The most popular figure of his time

* Symbolized the era of the common man as new voting reforms took place with "peoples candidates"

* His politics dominated the era in which he served as President

* After two terms in office, he handpicked his successors

+ Jackson was the first President from the west

+ He was the first President to be nominated at a formal party convention

+ First (since Washington) without a college education

+ He distrusted an overly powerful federal government

Jacksonian Democracy

Nationalism; preserving the Union; territorial expansion;

Relationship with his vice-president,
John C. Calhoun (nullification)

State's Rights Their duty to foster natural progress

Individualism private and free enterprise

Equality white males only

Mediocrity OK ; education encouraged, but not revered

Jackson's Government

Andrew Jackson was not a "common man"
(duelist, individual, versatile)

In 1824, Thomas Jefferson spoke of how Jackson "could never speak on account of the rashness of his feelings. I have seen him attempt it repeatedly, and as often choke with rage.His passions are no doubt cooler now......but he is a dangerous man".

-yet identified as their champion

Common Touch - legendary!
-made decisions based on emotion
-was able to grasp will of people

His advisers were mediocre people
Spoils System - appointments based upon support and friendship.
*Jackson appointed friends openly

He expected unquestioned loyalty

Jackson's view of the Presidency

While in office he created the office of the Presidency as we know it today
a) in addition to executive responsibilities, he initiated laws and dominated Congress --->Increasing his power.

b) He truly felt
that he represented the American People

c) His primary duty:
Preserve the Union

d) As Chief Executive - He used his veto power 12 times and also used the pocket veto

The Problem of Peggy O'Neale Eaton

Jackson's Sec of War, John Eaton and his wife of Peggy, daughter of a Tavernkeeper had a scandalous past.

Vice-President Calhoun's wife set precedence by snubbing her in D.C.

Cabinet divided;
Jackson sided with the Eatons

Martin van Buren gained Jackson's favor by getting cabinet members to resign. Interim - Kitchen Cabinet

*John Calhoun is out of favor*

South Carolina
- Concern about the protective tariff

- Concerned about their "peculiar institution" and Denmark Vescey

The Exposition and Protest of
South Carolina-Tariff of Abominations secretly written by John C. Calhoun

state is sovereign with the power expressed
in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

* the "nullification theory"

Webster/Hayne Debate
Unionism v Sectionalism

North wanted to slow down west settlements to preserve its power

South wanted to side with the west;
agenda - increase its political power to block any anti-slavery law

Argument reached the Senate Floor

Sen Robert Y. Hayne of So. Carolina argued liberty and individual state freedom at the expense of the US Constitution

Daniel Webster of Massachusetts speech (legendary) rejected the idea that the US was a league of sovereign states

The US Government is for the People and answerable to the People

If the states decided on the constitutionality of laws, then the constitution would fall apart

Only the Supreme Court had that Power

Webster's speech - National Pride
In the South - preserve slavery

Jackson and Calhoun break

Calhoun -
rumored to have criticized Jackson in regard to Florida

*The Peggy Eaton Affair

*Jefferson Day Celebration

Calhoun and supporters hoped to sway Jackson into supporting Southern positions.

After a series of speeches favoring states' rights

Jackson rose to toast -
"Our Union, it must be preserved"!

Calhoun was deeply shaken,
his toast- "The Union, next to our liberty, most dear"!

Jackson had stated his position publicly;
nationalism spread across the country

Indian Policy

Jackson felt that Indians east of the Mississippi should be moved west of River on to land forbidden to whites

During his 8 years-94 Indian Treaties

The Cherokee Tribe

They lived in Georgia, adapting to the ways of the white man
(farming, factories, schools)

Sequoyah developed Cherokee Alphabet

Cherokees owned plantations and even black slaves

*Gold was discovered on Cherokee Land

In 1828, State of Georgia claimed Cherokee land

Cherokees took their case to the Supreme Court where it ruled that Georgia had no jurisdiction.

Georgia refused to abide by the Supreme Courts decision

Jackson's reply to John Marshall's decision was, " He made it, now let him enforce it".

Jackson stood by and did nothing
(feared the nullification theory)

He really sympathized with the Indians but clearly wanted land open to white settlers

He proposed the removal of the remaining eastern tribes

He felt that they would be better off in land west of the Mississippi called Indian Territory (Oklahoma)
where they could practice their customs

In 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act

Cherokee Trail of Tears
US Army, Gen. Winfield Scott forced march 15,000 Cherokee out of their ancestral homeland

4,000 died on the 116 day journey

Bureau of Indian Affairs - 1836

Black Hawk War 1832
- resistance to policy in Wisconsin and Illinois

Seminoles, led by Osceola,
fought off US Army successfully for 7 years

Reservation system was established
guarantees were made to the tribes
almost never carried out by whites

Tariff of 1832

In December, 1831 - Jackson recommends to Congress a proposal to eliminate the worst features of the Tariff of Abominations - It Passes!!

South wants more!

So. Carolina -Theory of Nullification

* A special state convention declares the tariffs of 1828 & 1832
"null and void"

* They forbid Federal Officials from collecting tariff revenues

* Threatened Secession

Jackson's Response
Nullification Proclamation
warning So. Carolina - Treason

Showdown -So. Carolina raised an army

Congress passed a "Force Bill"
President use of the army to collect

The American People rallied around Andrew Jackson

Compromise was reached
Clay proposed a new lower tariff and it was passed in the House and Senate

So. Carolina called their state convention and withdrew its nullification ordinance
Nullification is not dead

Jackson and The National Bank

The 2nd Bank of the United States was managed by Nicholas Biddle

Bank was very unpopular in the West

* it regulated the money supply
(regulated the credit)

Bank was very powerful -> resentment

In 1832 (Presidential Election Year)
Biddle tried to get the Bank
re-chartered, even though 4 years were left on its existing charter.

Congress passed the bank bill
Jackson vetoed it!

a) the bank only benefited the rich
b) government should not be part of a major corporation

c) the bank exploited the west for the benefit of eastern stockholders
d) its economic and political power were a threat to national security

* As usual,
Jackson has the support of the American People

Jackson removed all US Govt Funds and utilized Pet Banks

Biddle fought back with the bank's resources

financial panic --> depression

state banks increased along with credit and the money supply

banks financed internal improvement within their states

Jackson ordered that the sale of government land be in gold/silver
(Specie Circular)

bank failures in England cause creditors to call in their loans to American Banks

price of cotton dropped dramatically

crop failures are now magnified

New England manufacturers over-expanded

Result ------> economic depression

(after Jackson leaves office)

Foreign Affairs

"Shirt Sleeve Diplomacy"
-very effective

Hostile relations
with England were eliminated along with trade restrictions

France's Napoleonic debt of 5 million
- still outstanding. Tallied in 1831

France refuses to pay;
Jackson denounces them;
France threatens war

England mediates --> France pays


* Jackson bolstered executive power:

* He led the common people into national politics

* He united them into the powerful Democratic Party

* He proved that they could be trusted with the vote

The BUS controversy caused smaller undercapitalized banks to emerge during a time when sound banking was a necessity

Election of 1836

Jackson's hand picked successor

Martin Van Buren

The Whig Party
Anti-Jackson politicians formed a political engine to combat Jackson

They ran four candidates against him
Hugh White, Daniel Webster,
W.P Mangum, William Henry Harrison

Purpose - get the election to the House of Representatives

Martin Van Buren - A New Yorker
"The first-class second-rate man"

As Jackson second,
he incurred the resentment of many Democrats.

He was a mediocre leader living in the shadow of a great one

The Financial Panic of 1837
a) land sales were reduced
b) banks failed
c) unemployment
d) farming problems

England cut back investments because of internal problems

Van Buren's
"Divorce Bill" putting US surplus funds in vaults

The United States Treasury
was independent of private investment

Knocked down in 1840; brought back in 1846 -------------> 20 Century - FED

Martin did manage to issue an executive order limiting govt workers to a 10 hour day

Election of 1840

"Little Van" v William Henry Harrison

Whigs - "Tippecanoe and Tyler Too"

The Campaign
Van Buren was depicted as an aristo

Harrison - a man of the people
@(nominated because he was issueless and enemy fact a popular general and Indian Fighter)

John Tyler-Virginian, balanced ticket

Harrison was portrayed as a log cabin dweller, hard drinking poor man
(He was actually from one of Virginia's first families)

Log Cabins and Hard Cider
a colorful campaign

Harrison wins - caught pneumonia during his inauguration and died one month later

The Two Party System of American Politics Emerges

From Jeffersonian Republicanism
to The Era of Good Feeling
to Jacksonian Democracy

To the Democratic

and The Whig Party
(protective tariffs, internal improvements,
reform, national bank)