The Republican Revolution
President John F. Kennedy once greeted a large group of Nobel Prize winners
"the most extraordinary collection of talent, of human knowledge, that has ever been gathered together at
the White House, with the possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson dined alone."
man of consistent inconsistencies
It is easy to quote Tom to refute Tom
"What is practical
must often control what is pure theory."
His Cabinet appointments stressed Republican partisanship (precedent)
James Madison - Secretary of State
Albert Gallatin - Sec. of Treasury
Levi Lincoln- Attorney General
Dearborn- Sec. of War
Gideon Granger- Postmaster General
Election of 1800 - Revolution of 1800
replaced Federalist in most key positions.
The dawn of a new era
Jefferson Inaugural Address
*Stressed the need for harmony and confidence in the Union
*Believed in a wise and frugal government which gave
the people as much freedom as possible
1.Equal justice to all men regardless of their Party affiliations
2.Friendship with nations but no alliances
3.Respect for states rights but preserving Federal Power
4.Freedom of Speech and Press
a)He envisioned a healthy society
of small, self-sufficient farmers.
b)Against industry- too much dependency
c) cut back on military
spending- believed in organized state militia, however, did help to establish the Military Academy at West Point
allowed the Alien and Sedition Acts to lapse
e)A reduction of the national debt
Sec. of Treasury Albert
Gallatin balanced the national budget, simplifying and reducing debt
f) Kept most of Hamilton's programs intact including
the Bank of US which he later chartered more responsibility
A tariff on imports; excise taxation ed
In Jefferson's first message to Congress, he refers to manufacturing, commerce, navigation along with agriculture
of course the
"four pillars of our prosperity"
He even states that conditions might have to altered
in time to protect them.
He does not publicly touch on the topic of slavery. He is a large slave holder
19% of America's population
was of African or mixed blood.
He conveniently avoids the issue
but reminds Congress of the Slave Trade stopping in 1808.
Jefferson's moderation embraced Federalism and demonstrated
how one party could replace another in a peaceful, orderly manner.
Marbury v Madison (1803)
Adams persuaded Congress to pass the Judiciary Act of 1801,
creating 16 federal judgeships
The last 3 were appointed on his last day as President.
New Congress eventually repeals the Act one
John Marshall -Federalist judge, and cousin to Thomas Jefferson was one of the last judges appointed
William Marbury appointed Justice of the Peace of the District of Columbia
Thomas Jefferson instructed
his Secretary of State, James Madison not to deliver the appointment
Marbury sought a writ of mandamus, forcing James
Madison to deliver his appointment.
Result was that Marshall did not want to challenge the Republicans, but did rule
on a point stated in Marbury's Defense.
On a Writ of Mandamus-
The Judiciary Act of 1789, granting the
Supreme Court this power was unconstitutional
In Marshall's opinion, Congress did not have this power, only
the Constitution did, therefore Madison does not have to deliver the appointment
Marshall's 3 principles were
1) The Constitution is the Supreme law of the land.
2) legislative enactments are subordinate
3) Judges are sworn at all cost to uphold the law.
Jefferson and the Supreme Court
Judges delivered speeches from the bench against Republican "mobocracy".
He managed to remove District
Judge John Pickering on the grounds of incompetence. (drinking involved)
Supreme Court Justice- Samuel B Chase
In 1804, impeachment charges against Chase were voted by the House of Rep.
(brought on by Jeffersonians)
was charged with "high crimes"
Senate acquitted him , failing to convict him of anything but partisanship
and bad manners.
The Court remained intact and the separation of powers preserved.
with the Barbary Pirates
Barbary States of Algiers, Morocco, Tunis, and Tripoli demanded tribute for the safe
passage of US trade vessels in the Mediterranean
Pasha of Tripoli was dissatisfied with his share of protection money.
He cuts down the flag over the American consulate, informally declaring war.
Jefferson responds by sending
navy to Tripoli. (Marine Corp song)
Peace Treaty is signed in 1805 - payment of $60,000 for ransom of American sailors.
Result: Navy gains strength(through the use of small gunboats)
US gains credibility.
Treaty of San Ildefonso - Spain gave the territory to France.
1) Could not take possession of the territory (logistics)
2) Could not spare the money or troops for occupation
3) Had to secure the peace in Europe
4) barely was able to crush slave rebellion in Santo Domingo staged
by former slave
We used the Mississippi to deposit goods
in New Orleans
Jefferson's dilemma- "The day that France takes possession of New Orleans, we must
marry ourselves to the British fleet and nation"
He sent James Monroe and Robert R. Livingston
to Paris to meet with Napoleon. They were authorized to spend a maximum of $10,000,000 in a deal to buy New Orleans and any
lands to the east. If no progress, open a conference with the British
In order to control Santo
(essential in controlling Caribbean)
*Costs were high for Napoleon. Men, Yellow Fever, mosquitoes
*Napoleon felt that the Americans would seek British help (alliance)
use money to finance schemes in Europe, and hope that the Americans someday become a formidable world power,
tying up the British in the New World
Livingston opened the negotiations with France for the
purchase of the City New Orleans
French Minister countered with the staggering proposal of the sale of the whole
After a week of haggling, they settled for the sum of $15,000,000
(about 3 cents an acre!)
accepts the offer!!!
April 30, 1803 treaties were signed ceding Louisiana to US for 15 million
The Purchase, Congress and the Constitution
The Constitution said nothing about giving the govt power to buy
lands from foreign countries.
Jefferson the Strict Constructionist becomes a Loose Constructionist.
upset with his changing views
Not the Republican Congress!!
They welcomed the treaties
that once chartered a National Bank, became Strict in their interpretation
(fear of territory becoming new states, dominated
Oct, 1803, Senate approved the Purchase and the House approved
a) US is doubled in size
b) US settlers now could push to the Pacific Coast
the Lewis and Clarke Expedition
The Corps of Discovery - 2 1/2 year (1804-06) adventure of the mapping and exploring
the land west of the Mississippi and the Oregon Territory
d) Zebulon Pike - (1805-07)
northern Mississippi and southern section of the Louisiana Territory. He went as far west as
the Colorado Rockies (Pikes
Again in American History, European affairs effected the development and growth the US.
-Napoleon, Santo Domingo, control of the Mississippi, Toussaint L'Overture
Western Policy -
*Land Act of 1800
Encouraged westward expansion by reducing the minimum purchase from 640 acres to 320. 4 year terms
*Land Act 0f 1804
Minimum parcel is 160 acres, low costs of less than $2.00/acre
Politics in 1804
Jefferson suffered criticism from both Federalist and
from his own Republican Party
He used federal funds to satisfy claims of investors who purchased land from the State
of Georgia before it ceded control of its western lands to the federal government
(Yazoo Land Claimants)
Party began to fractionalize, locally (Quidism) into local 3rd party movements.
Problems in Virginia- John
Problems with Aaron Burr
In the Election of 1800 - Burr lost credibility with Jefferson and
the Republican Party.
(Still was Vice-President, but out of the power circle)
The NY Quid - Burr gains
power and support in NY from Federalists and disgruntled Republicans.
Federalists felt they were losing political
and economic power with the Louisiana Purchase.
The Northern Confederacy -
Timothy Pickering led a Federalist
proposed plan where the New England States would secede from the union and form their own Confederacy.
would not go along
They turned to Aaron Burr.
They offered to support him for governor in 1804
if he would lead NY and New England in seceding from the union. Naturally, He accepted!!!
Hamilton discovered the
plot and helped to defeat Burr
Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel. On July 11, 1804 in Weehawken NJ, Burr shot and
mortally wounded Hamilton. He died the next day.
He was indicted for murder in NY and NJ. Burr fled south but did
return to preside over the Senate as VP
Jefferson dropped him from his ticket in 1804
Burr and the
From the UK
Burr would separate the Western part of the US from the East for
Burr would establish a buffer state between Spanish Territory and US
General James Wilkinson, commander of the Louisiana troops
Harman Blennerhassett, a wealthy Irish exile
About 60 men
In the Summer of 1806, they boarded flatboats on the Ohio - Mississippi for some unknown purpose.
Wilkinson betrays Burr, reports to Jefferson.
Burr is caught and brought to Washington DC indicted
on counts of treason
Jefferson wants a conviction badly, regardless of the evidence
John Marshall wants
to discredit Jefferson as much as insuring justice to Burr
Marshall defines treason as levying war against
the US or to adhere to her enemies
Burr is acquitted, lives out his life as a lawyer in NY
War in Europe- France v Great Britain
Battle of Trafalgar - Nelson defeats the combined French and Spanish Navy
Great Britain rule the seas!
Battle of Austerlitz- Napoleon defeats Austria and Russia
France is master of
Britain issues the Orders of Council Trade is prohibited by anyone with a French controlled port.
Had to stop in a British port for clearance
Napoleon's answer - Imperial Decrees
France seized all ships
that traded with the British Isles
-The British were low on manpower
British sailors (some deserters) were now American citizens
American merchant marine made it lucrative to leave the
British Navy and join the Americans
Britain did not agree that this was possible, "Once an Englishman, always
Some 6,000 sailors were impressed off American ships
The Chesapeake Affair
unarmed US frigate, Chesapeake was stopped off the coast of Virginia by the British frigate Leopard
captain demanded a search of the vessel for deserters
American captain denies the request, the Leopard responds with
the firing of 3 lethal broadsides at close range. Three Americans are killed, Four deserters are carried off ship.
admits error, but refuses to stop the impressment of sailors
Jefferson's Embargo - Dec 22, 1807
alternative to war - the use of economic pressure instead of war.
Purpose: keep America neutral and out of the French
and English conflict
Means: Peaceful Coercion. Prohibited all trade with foreign ports.
and France needed American raw materials and goods
Result: Jefferson takes a beating. America's trade drops
by about 2/3 its 1807 figure
A severe depression hits America. Businessmen would rather take their chances on the
open seas rather than succumb to economic stagnation.
On March 1, 1809, Jefferson signs the Non-Intercourse Act.
This opened up trade with all nations except those at war(Britain and France)
A war would have been cheaper!
up of the US Army and Navy would have been cheaper!
In 1809, Jefferson leaves office and retires into private life.