Salerno's Classroom Celebrates America!

U.S. History Chapter 7

AP Government Summer Assignment
AP Chapters 1,2
AP Chapter 3
AP Chapter 4
AP Chapter 5
AP Chapter 6
AP Chapter 7
AP Chapter 8
AP Chapter 9
AP Chapter 10
AP Chapter 11
AP Chapter 12
AP Chapter 13
AP Chapter 14
AP Chapter 15
AP Chapter 16
U.S. History Chapters 1, 2, 3
U.S. History Chapter 4
U.S. History Chapter 5
U.S. History Chapter 6
U.S. History Chapter 7
U.S. History Chapter 8
U.S. History Chapter 9
U.S. History Chapter 10
U.S. History Chapter 11
U.S. History Chapter 12
U.S. History Chapter 13
U.S. History Chapter 14
U.S. History Chapters 16,17,18
U.S. History Chapters 19,20,21
U.S. History Chapters 22,23
U.S. History Chapters 24,25
U.S. History Chapters 26,27
U.S. History Chapters 28,29,30
U.S. History Chapter 31
U.S. History Chapter 32
U.S. History Chapter 33
US Government Chapters 1,2
US Government Chapter 3
US Government Chapters 10,11,12
US Government Chapters 13,14
US Government Chapter 18
US Govt Chapters 19,20,21
Remembering 9/11/01
The Civil Rights Movement
Economics Chapters 1,2,3
Eco Chapt 9
Eco Chapters 6,7,8
Eco Chapt 13
Eco Chapter 15
Eco Chapt 21


Chapter 7
The Republican Revolution

President John F. Kennedy once greeted a large group of Nobel Prize winners as

"the most extraordinary collection of talent, of human knowledge, that has ever been gathered together at the White House, with the possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson dined alone."

Thomas Jefferson
-a man of consistent inconsistencies
It is easy to quote Tom to refute Tom


"What is practical must often control what is pure theory."

His Cabinet appointments stressed Republican partisanship (precedent)

James Madison - Secretary of State
Albert Gallatin - Sec. of Treasury
Levi Lincoln- Attorney General
Henry Dearborn- Sec. of War
Gideon Granger- Postmaster General

Election of 1800 - Revolution of 1800

Republicans replaced Federalist in most key positions.

The dawn of a new era

Jefferson Inaugural Address

*Stressed the need for harmony and confidence in the Union

*Believed in a wise and frugal government which gave the people as much freedom as possible

1.Equal justice to all men regardless of their Party affiliations

2.Friendship with nations but no alliances

3.Respect for states rights but preserving Federal Power

4.Freedom of Speech and Press

Jefferson's Administration

a)He envisioned a healthy society of small, self-sufficient farmers.

b)Against industry- too much dependency

c) cut back on military spending- believed in organized state militia, however, did help to establish the Military Academy at West Point

d) allowed the Alien and Sedition Acts to lapse

e)A reduction of the national debt
Sec. of Treasury Albert Gallatin balanced the national budget, simplifying and reducing debt

f) Kept most of Hamilton's programs intact including the Bank of US which he later chartered more responsibility

A tariff on imports; excise taxation ed


In Jefferson's first message to Congress, he refers to manufacturing, commerce, navigation along with agriculture of course the
"four pillars of our prosperity"

He even states that conditions might have to altered in time to protect them.

He does not publicly touch on the topic of slavery. He is a large slave holder

19% of America's population
was of African or mixed blood.

He conveniently avoids the issue but reminds Congress of the Slave Trade stopping in 1808.

Jefferson's moderation embraced Federalism and demonstrated how one party could replace another in a peaceful, orderly manner.


Marbury v Madison (1803)

The Midnight Judges

Adams persuaded Congress to pass the Judiciary Act of 1801,
creating 16 federal judgeships

The last 3 were appointed on his last day as President.

New Congress eventually repeals the Act one year later.

John Marshall -Federalist judge, and cousin to Thomas Jefferson was one of the last judges appointed by Adams

William Marbury appointed Justice of the Peace of the District of Columbia

Thomas Jefferson instructed his Secretary of State, James Madison not to deliver the appointment

Marbury sought a writ of mandamus, forcing James Madison to deliver his appointment.

Result was that Marshall did not want to challenge the Republicans, but did rule on a point stated in Marbury's Defense.

On a Writ of Mandamus-
The Judiciary Act of 1789, granting the Supreme Court this power was unconstitutional

In Marshall's opinion, Congress did not have this power, only the Constitution did, therefore Madison does not have to deliver the appointment

Marshall's 3 principles were established

1) The Constitution is the Supreme law of the land.

2) legislative enactments are subordinate

3) Judges are sworn at all cost to uphold the law.

Jefferson and the Supreme Court

Federalists Judges delivered speeches from the bench against Republican "mobocracy".

He managed to remove District Judge John Pickering on the grounds of incompetence. (drinking involved)

Supreme Court Justice- Samuel B Chase

In 1804, impeachment charges against Chase were voted by the House of Rep.
(brought on by Jeffersonians)

Chase was charged with "high crimes"

Senate acquitted him , failing to convict him of anything but partisanship and bad manners.

The Court remained intact and the separation of powers preserved.

War with the Barbary Pirates

Barbary States of Algiers, Morocco, Tunis, and Tripoli demanded tribute for the safe passage of US trade vessels in the Mediterranean

Pasha of Tripoli was dissatisfied with his share of protection money.

He cuts down the flag over the American consulate, informally declaring war.

Jefferson responds by sending navy to Tripoli. (Marine Corp song)

Peace Treaty is signed in 1805 - payment of $60,000 for ransom of American sailors.

Result: Navy gains strength(through the use of small gunboats)

US gains credibility.

The Louisiana Purchase

Treaty of San Ildefonso - Spain gave the territory to France.

Napoleon's Problem

1) Could not take possession of the territory (logistics)

2) Could not spare the money or troops for occupation

3) Had to secure the peace in Europe

4) barely was able to crush slave rebellion in Santo Domingo staged by former slave
Toussaint L'Overture

American Problem
We used the Mississippi to deposit goods in New Orleans

Jefferson's dilemma- "The day that France takes possession of New Orleans, we must marry ourselves to the British fleet and nation"


He sent James Monroe and Robert R. Livingston to Paris to meet with Napoleon. They were authorized to spend a maximum of $10,000,000 in a deal to buy New Orleans and any lands to the east. If no progress, open a conference with the British


In order to control Santo Domingo
(essential in controlling Caribbean)

*Costs were high for Napoleon. Men, Yellow Fever, mosquitoes

*Napoleon felt that the Americans would seek British help (alliance)

His Solution

Sell off Louisiana;
use money to finance schemes in Europe, and hope that the Americans someday become a formidable world power, tying up the British in the New World

The Deal

Livingston opened the negotiations with France for the purchase of the City New Orleans

French Minister countered with the staggering proposal of the sale of the whole territory!

After a week of haggling, they settled for the sum of $15,000,000
(about 3 cents an acre!)

Napoleon accepts the offer!!!

April 30, 1803 treaties were signed ceding Louisiana to US for 15 million

Jefferson, The Purchase, Congress and the Constitution

The Constitution said nothing about giving the govt power to buy lands from foreign countries.

Jefferson the Strict Constructionist becomes a Loose Constructionist.

He was upset with his changing views
Not the Republican Congress!!
They welcomed the treaties

Federalists that once chartered a National Bank, became Strict in their interpretation
(fear of territory becoming new states, dominated by Republicans)

Not Hamilton!

Oct, 1803, Senate approved the Purchase and the House approved the spending

a) US is doubled in size

b) US settlers now could push to the Pacific Coast

c) the Lewis and Clarke Expedition

The Corps of Discovery - 2 1/2 year (1804-06) adventure of the mapping and exploring the land west of the Mississippi and the Oregon Territory

d) Zebulon Pike - (1805-07)

Explored the northern Mississippi and southern section of the Louisiana Territory. He went as far west as
the Colorado Rockies (Pikes Peak)

Again in American History, European affairs effected the development and growth the US.

-Napoleon, Santo Domingo, control of the Mississippi, Toussaint L'Overture

Western Policy -

*Land Act of 1800
Encouraged westward expansion by reducing the minimum purchase from 640 acres to 320. 4 year terms

*Land Act 0f 1804
Minimum parcel is 160 acres, low costs of less than $2.00/acre

*Result: Northwest territory settled

Politics in 1804

Jefferson suffered criticism from both Federalist and from his own Republican Party

He used federal funds to satisfy claims of investors who purchased land from the State of Georgia before it ceded control of its western lands to the federal government
(Yazoo Land Claimants)

Republican Party began to fractionalize, locally (Quidism) into local 3rd party movements.

Problems in Virginia- John Randolph

Problems with Aaron Burr

In the Election of 1800 - Burr lost credibility with Jefferson and the Republican Party.
(Still was Vice-President, but out of the power circle)

The NY Quid - Burr gains power and support in NY from Federalists and disgruntled Republicans.

Federalists felt they were losing political and economic power with the Louisiana Purchase.

The Northern Confederacy -
Timothy Pickering led a Federalist proposed plan where the New England States would secede from the union and form their own Confederacy.

Hamilton would not go along

They turned to Aaron Burr.

They offered to support him for governor in 1804 if he would lead NY and New England in seceding from the union. Naturally, He accepted!!!

Hamilton discovered the plot and helped to defeat Burr

Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel. On July 11, 1804 in Weehawken NJ, Burr shot and mortally wounded Hamilton. He died the next day.

He was indicted for murder in NY and NJ. Burr fled south but did return to preside over the Senate as VP

Jefferson dropped him from his ticket in 1804

Burr and the West
-Conflicting reports:

From the UK
Burr would separate the Western part of the US from the East for 500k.

From Spain
Burr would establish a buffer state between Spanish Territory and US

His supporters:

General James Wilkinson, commander of the Louisiana troops

Harman Blennerhassett, a wealthy Irish exile

About 60 men

In the Summer of 1806, they boarded flatboats on the Ohio - Mississippi for some unknown purpose.

Wilkinson betrays Burr, reports to Jefferson.

Burr is caught and brought to Washington DC indicted on counts of treason

Jefferson wants a conviction badly, regardless of the evidence

John Marshall wants to discredit Jefferson as much as insuring justice to Burr

Marshall defines treason as levying war against the US or to adhere to her enemies

Burr is acquitted, lives out his life as a lawyer in NY


War in Europe- France v Great Britain

Battle of Trafalgar - Nelson defeats the combined French and Spanish Navy
Great Britain rule the seas!

Battle of Austerlitz- Napoleon defeats Austria and Russia
France is master of the continent!

Britain issues the Orders of Council Trade is prohibited by anyone with a French controlled port. Had to stop in a British port for clearance

Napoleon's answer - Imperial Decrees

France seized all ships that traded with the British Isles


-The British were low on manpower
-Many former British sailors (some deserters) were now American citizens

American merchant marine made it lucrative to leave the British Navy and join the Americans

Britain did not agree that this was possible, "Once an Englishman, always an Englishmen!"

Some 6,000 sailors were impressed off American ships

The Chesapeake Affair

The unarmed US frigate, Chesapeake was stopped off the coast of Virginia by the British frigate Leopard

The British captain demanded a search of the vessel for deserters

American captain denies the request, the Leopard responds with the firing of 3 lethal broadsides at close range. Three Americans are killed, Four deserters are carried off ship.

Britain admits error, but refuses to stop the impressment of sailors

Jefferson's Embargo - Dec 22, 1807
The alternative to war - the use of economic pressure instead of war.

Purpose: keep America neutral and out of the French and English conflict

Means: Peaceful Coercion. Prohibited all trade with foreign ports.

Reason: Britain and France needed American raw materials and goods

Result: Jefferson takes a beating. America's trade drops by about 2/3 its 1807 figure

A severe depression hits America. Businessmen would rather take their chances on the open seas rather than succumb to economic stagnation.

On March 1, 1809, Jefferson signs the Non-Intercourse Act. This opened up trade with all nations except those at war(Britain and France)

A war would have been cheaper!
Build up of the US Army and Navy would have been cheaper!

In 1809, Jefferson leaves office and retires into private life.