The Road to Revolution and Victory
Britain ignored its American colonies
Puritan Revolution, Glorious Revolution 4 Wars with France (including F & I)
developed without interference
were almost totally independent from UK. Business prospered without UK
UK 3,000 miles away
travel and mail very difficult
1) Colonists received
freedom they needed to expand and liked autonomy
2) Foreign trade increased. UK at war
3) Colonists began to tap America's
vast natural resources
"de facto independence"
Prime Minister George Grenville
faced with a huge war debt problem after 7 Years Wars
-colonists should pay for 1/3 cost of keeping British Regulars
in America for protection
-British enforced the Old Navigation Laws
-Proclamation of 1763 banned colonial
settlements west of the Appalachians for the purpose of keeping peace with Indians. Colonists ignored it because of plantation
expansion, better hunting, trapping
(colonials not happy)
Sugar Act 1764
(replaced Molasses Act)
colonists to purchase only UK approved molasses products (actually cheaper) and put a duty on foreign products
actually lowered the duty on foreign molasses from 6 pence to 3 pence
-added a duty on wines, coffee
required colonials to pay for food and house British Regulars that defended them
(colonists not happy
Stamp Act 1765
Colonists had to pay taxes on paper goods
Grenville used these measures of
raising money commonly throughout the British Empire
Any offenders of this legislation had to appear before an admiralty
(no jurors, guilty until proven innocent)
· Sons of Liberty were formed
to intimidate British officials
· nullification - disregard Stamp Act
· Stamp Act Congress - 9/13
26 delegates in New York City
"No taxation without representation"
British Parliament should
only local taxes would be accepted
*Agreed to boycott British goods
First sign of unity in
British business suffered
and initiated a repeal….. however
Parliament passes Declaratory
(retaining the right to tax)
Causes of the American Revolution
a) feared tyranny of monarchy, Parliament
b) believed there assemblies = Parliament
c) were not represented
(really didn't care….autonomy)
d) taxes today meant taxes tomorrow
UK enforcement meant necessary smuggling
as if they were treated as wilderness barbarians, never like citizens
Americans felt that eventually
an Anglican bishop would come and act as an arm of the British government
of the Exchequer
Townshend Act 1767
tax on glass, paper, tea that would yield
revenues used in paying the
salaries of governors and judges………efficiency?
colonial reaction - the usual!!
on the Carolina frontier. Protests over taxes and high court rates
by Carolina militia at the Battle of Alamance
-points were clear…unhappy with taxation
Gaspee Incident - ship
in Rhode Island port
-crew was looting locals
-ship ran a ground, RI colonial burnt ship
-at trial, no evidence
* Boston Massacre 1770
British troops fire upon colonists protesting the Townshend
Acts. Sam Adams?
Who fired the first shot?
Who incited the riot?
Sam Adams organized the
"Penmen of the Revolution" in Massachusetts. Idea spread throughout
colony and to other colonies.
Next step… Inter-colonial committees to exchange ideas and keep British opposition alive.
Typical British reaction
- send more troops to enforce!!!
Note: the British policy of attempting
to enforce taxes on their American colonies was self-defeating since enforcement cost more than the actual yields of taxation
Tea Act - May 1773
Lord North attempted to save the British East India Co. by giving it a monopoly
on tea in America (actually lowered the cost because of their surplus, even with the Townshend tax.
upset undersold by UK aided business
-colonists saw this move as an attempt for tax acceptance
-Ships not allowed
to unload their cargo in the colonies
* Boston Tea Party 1773
cargo dumped in Boston Harbor
(by a band of mysterious Indians)
Boston Port Act
- close harbor until restitution
Massachusetts Government Act
- altered old Mass Charter Constitution
Administration of Justice
- customs cases are tried in UK, not in local courts
- housing and feeding of British
The Intolerable Acts aka Coercive Acts
-gave province permanent
govt without an assembly.
Cut off westward expansion.
Note: By redesigning the Mass. Govt., Parliament
thought it was going to assert control over its American colony
(backed up with army )
teach the colonials to respect
Colonists, however, thought differently
They saw an end of the power of their own individual assemblies,
courts system, trial by jury, and the end to every American political principle.
Committees of Correspondence
call for an inter-colonial congress
1st Continental Congress
- September 1774
First sign of unity
of sympathy for Boston)
Each colony was really a mini nation, never really united
John Adams - played a
key role in eloquently swaying the congress of 55 delegates
( 12 colonies minus Georgia) to revolution
- Suffolk Resolves
Resistance to the Intolerable Acts
Joseph Galloway - conservative -Pennsylvania revert back
to Albany Plan (radicals quiet down)
·Agreed as an association to stop all trade with UK, but believed
British could regulate.
·Declaration of Rights and Grievances
·Liberty not Independence
sways the Silent Majority
Lexington & Concord 1775
General Gage, governor of Mass sees problem
-asks George III for 20,000 men. Got 3500
April 14 - receives instructions from Lord Dartmouth to take offensive
against any rebellious act
April 19 - sends 700 men to Concord to seize a supply of gunpowder and arms stored there
(militiamen sprang into action)
came to Lexington - 15 min volley
proceeded to Concord (Paul Reveres ride)
Americans fired at British from behind rocks and trees. War Begins
*Second Continental Congress meets in
May 10, 1775
most members present at 1st Congress
John Hancock - President
George Washington -
(Thomas Jefferson led the Virginia delegates)
unicameral body dubbed as an unlawful assembly
and "Den of Traitors" served as our new government throughout the revolution
Radical leaders continued
as the vocal minority that wanted total independence.
Silent Majority basically wanted liberty
*eliminate certain taxes
*eliminate trade interference
(British leaders wanted the same. Problem
was that key officials wanted total domination)
May 1775- Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen surprise and take
British garrison at Fort Ticonderoga
June 17 - Gage gets reinforcements also
John Burgoyne, Henry Clinton, William
Battle of Bunker Hill
actually Breed's Hill. Battle takes place as Regulars march up hill. Americans fire
and retreat. Brits outgun them but are cut to pieces
Olive Branch Petition - July 1775
Congress sends a petition
to King George asking him to halt Parliament's mercantilism policies in America.
(many colonials wanted to stay Englishmen)
It was refused!!! August 1775, he declares colonies in rebellion.
September 1775 - hires 30,000 Hessians
Both sides prepare for war
Richard Montgomery and Benedict Arnold attack Quebec
(expected French local help)
the anti-Catholic Americans did it alone and were defeated. (Montgomery killed Arnold
was wounded in his leg)
Thomas Paine and Common Sense
pamphlet stated how it made good sense to leave
the British Empire and denounce British rule. (remember there are still many loyalists)
Washington comments that
there is no choice but to rebel from England and strive for independence.
Henry Knox drags cannon
taken from Ticonderoga over the snow to Boston. Washington sets it up at Dorchester Heights,
overlooking the British
fleet in Boston Harbor
Howe is forced to sail away, siege is over.
Social Contract Theory
was further developed
was subject to any power superior to his own will. He could take anything by force. In order not to self-destruct, he contracts
with other men to give just enough power to the state(government) to protect everyone's rights".
July 4, 1776
The Declaration of Independence
(A document sometimes called
a) superior numbers
b) better trained
c) better quality of supplies
a) 3000 mi. away from home
b) unfamiliar land
c) poor leadership
d) low morale
a)a small and untrained army
b) inadequate supplies, ammo
c) short periods
a) superior leadership
b) fought on home turf
C) morale increased
with increasing victories
d) fought for livelihood
The Art of War
- Limited War
a) soldiers only
b) European battle lines
- Total War
everyone was involved
b) guerilla warfare
Battle of Long Island
Washington v Howe
British troops and ships leave Boston and enter into NY Harbor.
Washington was outnumbered
He flees to New Jersey. Howe doesn't follow, Washington has time to re-organize.
Battle of Trenton
Washington's surprise attack by crossing the icy Delaware River results in the capture of a thousand Hessian mercenaries
sleeping off their Christmas celebration.
He persuades his soldiers to re-enlist. They do and he goes on the offensive.
Battle of Princeton,
1 week later
Washington leaves his campfires burning high and attacks a detachment
at Princeton. In ten days the colonial have 2 major victories.
Morale is high.
Battles of Brandywine & Germantown
Winter 1777. Washington's army is defeated in two successive battles.
Howe and his army spend the winter in
Philadelphia. Washington and his army spend the winter in Valley Forge. Here Baron von Steuben turns the rag tag rabble into
· Battle of Saratoga
- Winter 1777
British plan to take the Hudson Valley Region and cut New
England from the lower colonies.
3 prong attack converging on Albany
1.Gen.Burgoyne from Montreal via
2.Col. St. Leger also from Montreal down St. Lawrence to Lake Ontario and traveling east to Albany
3.General Howe - Up the Hudson River from NYC.
3 armies meeting in the
Hudson Valley Region
is slowed by an encounter with Benedict Arnold at Lake Champlain and by rough terrain.
St.Leger is defeated at Oriskany
by the American militia
Howe spends the winter in Philly after defeating Washington at Brandywine and Germantown.
He doesn't show.
Result: Burgoyne's slow moving army is surrounded by colonial militia.
He surrenders his entire
command to General Horatio Gates.
Defeat of British marks the turning point of the war. Britain is about to offer
home rule to her colonies.
*Ben Franklin convinces France its now or never to support the Americans and get back
at England before they reconcile with the British.
The French officially help!!!
marks the turning
point of war
Important People of the War
Baron von Steuben - Order and drill master. Gave pride, dignity,
and discipline to Washington's army as they spent the winter at Valley Forge
Marquis de Lafayatte - 20 year old adventurer,
trained for war. Washington gives him a command, he outfought the more experienced British commanders. He is with Washington
at the Yorktown battlefield
Casmir Pulaski - Brave Polish commander killed in the southern campaign
Kosciusko - Commander responsible for the fortifications of West Point
Comte de Rochambeau - Commanded 6000
fresh troops landed in Newport Rhode Island and prepared an attack on NY.
Accompanies Washington at Yorktown
Rogers Clarke- Western campaign that overruns and takes British Forts Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes
Greene kept Cornwallis' army busy by hit and run. Cornwallis stopped the chase in 1781 and set his sights on Virginia.
Battle of Yorktown 1781
Cornwallis is out fought by Lafayette
and retreats to the Yorktown peninsula,
expecting supplies from the English Navy.
French Navy led by Admiral deGrasse defeats the British Navy and surrounds
General Rochambeau joins Lafayatte and flanks the British. (at least half the troops and all
of the navy were French)
Washington receives news of the Corwallis blunder and makes a swift march of more than
He shuts off any escape route.
Cornwallis is completely surrounded and outnumbered 2:1 He surrenders
The Colonial Army stays intact under the watchful eye of Washington. Battles are fought in south. Their are many
Loyalists still in the middle colonies. A mutual distrust for Tories keeps the states together
John Adams, John Jay represent the Americans at Peace talks(Henry Laurens was captured by the British, Thomas Jefferson could
not go). French influence was felt but avoided by the troika
Treaty of Paris 1783
1. American independence
was recognized by Britain
2. Established U.S. Territory ;
land east of the Mississippi between Canada and
3. Mississippi- open trade
4. All debts settled, prior to and during the war
given money and confiscated land. They wound up in Canada.
Why did the
a) the great distance between the mother country and colony (3000mi)
Colonists fought on
b) British underestimated the colonists will, determination.
Colonists were a people's army; they
practiced the art of total war. They turned themselves into an army
c) British failed to adjust to
Style. They had poor leadership that fought a limited war.
Colonists had a great leader in George Washington. He out
commanded the greatest European power.
d) British expected the Loyalists to carry a bigger load. They were involved
in Old World conflicts with France, Spain, and Holland. The French aid gave the Americans an advantage.
not win without it!
e) British Empire was too big. It was very tough to control an area like America. The colonists
could keep an army out in the field a long time while the British grow weary of the chase.
What did the
French gain from helping the Americans?
Nothing! Except satisfaction in seeing England defeated. In fact their
economy weakened because of it leading to civil unrest and internal problems.
was eager to make quick peace with the Americans. Whig party gained strength in Parliament and wanted to keep a good relationship
with the colonies.
They feared a Franco-American alliance so were very accommodating at the peace talks.