Salerno's Classroom Celebrates America!
AP Chapter 14
AP Government Summer Assignment
AP Chapters 1,2
AP Chapter 3
AP Chapter 4
AP Chapter 5
AP Chapter 6
AP Chapter 7
AP Chapter 8
AP Chapter 9
AP Chapter 10
AP Chapter 11
AP Chapter 12
AP Chapter 13
AP Chapter 14
AP Chapter 15
AP Chapter 16
U.S. History Chapters 1, 2, 3
U.S. History Chapter 4
U.S. History Chapter 5
U.S. History Chapter 6
U.S. History Chapter 7
U.S. History Chapter 8
U.S. History Chapter 9
U.S. History Chapter 10
U.S. History Chapter 11
U.S. History Chapter 12
U.S. History Chapter 13
U.S. History Chapter 14
U.S. History Chapters 16,17,18
U.S. History Chapters 19,20,21
U.S. History Chapters 22,23
U.S. History Chapters 24,25
U.S. History Chapters 26,27
U.S. History Chapters 28,29,30
U.S. History Chapter 31
U.S. History Chapter 32
U.S. History Chapter 33
US Government Chapters 1,2
US Government Chapter 3
US Government Chapters 10,11,12
US Government Chapters 13,14
US Government Chapter 18
US Govt Chapters 19,20,21
Remembering 9/11/01
The Civil Rights Movement
Economics Chapters 1,2,3
Eco Chapt 9
Eco Chapters 6,7,8
Eco Chapt 13
Eco Chapter 15
Eco Chapt 21

Chapter 14


Political Campaigns and Candidates


Nomination Campaign

The part of a political campaign aimed at winning an election


General Election Campaign

The part of a political campaign aimed at winning a general election


Personal Campaign

That part of a political campaign concerned with presenting the candidate’s public image







Organizational Campaign

The part of a political campaign involved in fund raising…not directly related to the candidate


Campaign manager;

political consultant;


finance chair;

direct mailer;

Voter canvass and the GOTV (get out to vote)


Media Campaign

The part of the campaign waged in the broadcast and print media


Paid media (advertisement)

Free media – coverage by newscasters


Waged Both Positive and Negative ads

          By and against the candidate


Spot ads – advertisement on behalf of a candidate that is broadcast on TV-Radio


Contrast ad – compares the records and proposals of the candidates


Inoculation ad – advertisement that anticipates the oppositions attack before it happens.



In a Presidential Election,

the incumbent has the advantage



1. The aura of the presidency

a president can achieve high ratings by acting Presidential


(Normal routine actions as the head of state)


*        Hail to the Chief


*        Presidential Seal


*        "Mr. President"






2. Awarding government contracts

Defense contracts to military industrialists may secure votes in certain key states


*        Large Federal Grants may flow to key primary states


3. Constantly campaigning

A President has the benefit of the Oval Office, Air Force One.

His speeches, actions and trips secure votes.  Every action of the President is calculated


*        a campaigning President must make presidential decisions, sometimes good; some bad


--->             In 1996, Nelson Polsby and

Aaron Wildavsky


Presidential Elections   

"campaigns do not function so much to change minds as to reinforce previous convictions"


1992 - 45% voters uncommitted

2004 – 12%


They are the key to any election



*        The public responds to political stimuli offered it


*        The behavior of voters is influenced by the issues of the day



"ticket-splitters" -

vote for the other party political candidates try to gain support of ticket-splitters






                                           *The route to candidacy*

                                                   "the primary"


                                             grueling, but necessary


Key States :                                        NY, CA, IL, OH, TX, MI, PA, FL







Incumbent Vice-Presidents have a difficult time shaking the image of their predecessor



Polsby and Wildavsky concur

"His is the most difficult strategic problem of all the candidates"


*        Sometimes positive;

(Reagan - Bush years)


*        Sometimes negative

(Hubert Humphrey)










Campaigns in American Politics


                                             TV and the Presidency


In 1976, Harold Mendelsohn and Garrett J. O'Keefe, The People Choose the President: Influences on Voter Decision Making


"Switchers" who change their minds during the course of a campaign and persons who make up their mind late in a campaign were more likely to be influenced by commercials

                                                   attention span?



*        Nixon's "Checkers" Speech

on receiving illegal campaign funding as a US Senator


"Back on the Ticket with Ike"



Dan Quayle - Murphy Brown





Ross Perot

Used TV time to and Financial charts to disconnect himself from Washington politics


He unraveled, though, when he accused Bush of releasing pictures of his daughter; then recanted


Still - 19% of the popular vote





1964 - LBJ v Barry Goldwater

"Daisy Girl" Commercial


"        We must learn to live together

              or we must die"



*        McGovern/ Eagleton       -        1972


*        Bush (Iran-Contra)

Dan Quayle


Clinton - Draft status







                                     The Great Presidential Debate


Not always the tell-tale sign of which way the election will go, but sometimes it may


Kennedy v Nixon 1960

"missile gap"


*        Nixon the "Ogre"

          ill-dressed and visibly not ready


*        JFK – calm and visibly appealing


Ford v Carter 1976

Incumbent does not necessarily have to agree to debate but Carter up 33pts in poll


*USSR dominating Eastern Europe


Carter v Reagan 1980

Are you better off than you were four years ago (inflation)  Reagan the "actor" won



Reagan v Mondale 1984


At 73, Reagan made a few mistakes in the first debate and age became a question


2nd debate - Reagan

"I am not going to exploit for political purposes my opponents youth and inexperience"


Reagan doesn't make a mistake and wins the election easily!


Bush v Dukakis - 1988

Bush and abortion(not clear)

Dukakis labeled a liberal


Quayle v Bensten (VP debate)



Clinton v Bush - 1992


Bush hammered away at Clinton's avoidance of the draft and opposition of the war


Clinton countered

with charges of McCarthyism and Prescott Bush


Clinton - very articulate,

hammered away at the economy



Ross Perot- 3rd Party Candidate



Clinton v Dole - 1996


Both quite sharp and up to form.


Dole on trust; Clinton economy


Clinton's major advantage

his youth and the presidency



Their Consultants may “spin” the actual outcome of the debate












Campaign Financing




Deep Throat - "follow the money"


Larry Sabato  

1996 comments on                     campaign reform

"This is all about self-preservation and survival... It may be a rotten system, but it has one redeeming feature ----


                                                  it elected you."




Federal Election Campaign Acts of 1974 and 1976 allotted major candidates Ford and Carter each $22 million in federal funds

                                              ( on your income tax)


+       12 million in donations

 +      12.4 mil  national convention



*        Buckley v Valeo (1976)

modified campaign financing by permitting indirect funds


Soft Money -                                     not subject to federal law or regulation




expenditures -                                   indirect committee money


"Fat Cat Contributors"

influence buying?



The New Rules (2002)


*        Contribution Limits

$2,000 to each candidate in each primary and election


$15,000 for PAC money


$25,000 national party money

Total per person $25,000


*        Spending Limits

Presidential candidates are limited to the amount received


*        Disclosure

Periodic reports disclosing contributions more than $200; expenditures more than $200


*        Federal Election Commission

enforce campaign finance laws




Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA)


Amended the FECA in three major ways:


1) by banning soft money contributions


2) by increasing the amount of hard money that individuals may donate to candidates and parties


3) by imposing new restrictions on political advertising close to an election