Salerno's Classroom Celebrates America!

U.S. History Chapters 19,20,21

AP Government Summer Assignment
AP Chapters 1,2
AP Chapter 3
AP Chapter 4
AP Chapter 5
AP Chapter 6
AP Chapter 7
AP Chapter 8
AP Chapter 9
AP Chapter 10
AP Chapter 11
AP Chapter 12
AP Chapter 13
AP Chapter 14
AP Chapter 15
AP Chapter 16
U.S. History Chapters 1, 2, 3
U.S. History Chapter 4
U.S. History Chapter 5
U.S. History Chapter 6
U.S. History Chapter 7
U.S. History Chapter 8
U.S. History Chapter 9
U.S. History Chapter 10
U.S. History Chapter 11
U.S. History Chapter 12
U.S. History Chapter 13
U.S. History Chapter 14
U.S. History Chapters 16,17,18
U.S. History Chapters 19,20,21
U.S. History Chapters 22,23
U.S. History Chapters 24,25
U.S. History Chapters 26,27
U.S. History Chapters 28,29,30
U.S. History Chapter 31
U.S. History Chapter 32
U.S. History Chapter 33
US Government Chapters 1,2
US Government Chapter 3
US Government Chapters 10,11,12
US Government Chapters 13,14
US Government Chapter 18
US Govt Chapters 19,20,21
Remembering 9/11/01
The Civil Rights Movement
Economics Chapters 1,2,3
Eco Chapt 9
Eco Chapters 6,7,8
Eco Chapt 13
Eco Chapter 15
Eco Chapt 21





Chapter 19

Late 19th Century - Manifest Destiny

"The White Man's Burden"


1) Anglo-Saxon man was superior to all dark skinned peoples

2) White man's duty to guide the dark skinned peoples of the world.

US Naval Officer- Alfred T. Mahan
Believed that the key to being a world power was through a large and strong navy.

1) protect American business overseas
2) promote American business overseas
3) called for a canal across Panama
4) US dominance in the Caribbean
5) Control of Samoa and Hawaii

*American businessman felt they needed to expand their markets across the globe.

19th Century - Japan, China,
So. America, Philippines

20th Century - US Navy protects
a) American markets overseas- at the same time protects our customers

b) Natural Resources - vital to the success of US business and to the success of our economy

c) strategic locations- control and dominance of the seas insures our countries safety. We usually maintain bases or patrol certain strategic areas of the world, thus protecting our interests.

Backlash - Anti-Imperialists of the 19th Century
did not want America to control foreign nations

- do not want America to rule over Asian Countries.

- US should be practicing the principles spelled out in the Declaration of Independence.

-Growing momentum of the Isolationists


US citizens own sugar/pineapple plantations (like old South)

They enjoyed a stateside monopoly

1891 - rise of Queen Liliuokalani

She is Anti-American and spoke for the poor of the islands

White US minority is sponsored by Marines and over-throw the Queen

-a pro US government is established

A treaty of annexation is drafted

Harrison leaves office and a Democratic Senate rejects the treaty

"Honest Grover Cleveland"
restores Queen Lil

*Foreign Rebuttal - The Boxer Rebellion. Chinese Nationalists protesting the Open Door Policy.


The Spanish American War
"A Splendid Little War"

"Yellow Journalism"
- Joseph Pulitzer William Randolph Hearst

"You supply the pictures and I'll supply the War"


Became contagious to Americans. We wanted to World Power.
Intense Pro-American fever.

Americans felt it was time to show Europe her greatness

Spanish American War

- Cubans began to revolt against Spanish rule(1868) - wanted to self-govern and free all the slaves on the island.

- Spain was slow to comply. This led to violence.

- 1895 Gen "Butcher" Weylar was sent by Spain to calm down the revolt.

-Weylar killed hundreds and imprisoned thousands in concentration camps. (So did the partisan Cubans)

Sympathy for Cuba=50 million invested

- incidents

the de Lome Letter - written by the Spanish Minister to the US criticizing President McKinley. Hearst published the letter.

Battleship Maine sent to Cuba ran over a mine in Havana harbor and sank. 260 lives lost. The battle cry, "Remember the Maine"

Spain agreed to arbitration but McKinley and Congress ignored it.

War was declared on Spain.

* Teller Amendment - the US did not desire to occupy Cuba, just to liberate

Great success with US Navy. Dewey wiped out the Spanish fleet in the Philippines.

Army was very disorganized, many died from fever and disease

*Results of Spanish American War-
Treaty of Paris 1898

-annexation of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines(20 mil)

Still a problem with the Filipinos
* Emilio Aguinaldo - led a revolt against American Imperialism

In 1899, McKinley appointed Wm. H. Taft to the Philippine Commission to make recommendations on the problem.

Aguinaldo finally captured in 1901

Philippines Independence - 1946

Cuban Independence
Platte Amendment
forced by US onto Cuba;

- Cuba could not deal with any foreign power without US consent

-US can build naval bases and interfere in Cuban affairs

(lasted until 1934, when repealed)

US annexes Hawaii

Chapter 20

The Progressive Movement

1890's ---------------->1920's
Progressive Legislation

Roosevelt Taft Wilson

Leaders were rising middle class,
college educated Professionals/Reformers

Purpose: To right the wrongs of
"The American Way"

a) Big Business

b) Child Labor

c) uneven distribution of wealth- 2% of America controlled 60% of the nation's wealth

d) safety in the workplace

e) low wages for women

How do these problems get addressed?

Through Federal and State Legislation
and through voting reform.

State Government Reform

Robert M. Lafollette fought against railroad and lumber interests in Wisconsin. Governor 1901

For the Voter.......

Initiative - voters could propose measures that they wanted to become law when not on the ballot.

Referendum - voters make the final decision on laws passed by legislators. Eg. Affordable Housing

Recall - public could remove from office an official not performing his duties.

Direct Primary - voters can vote in a Primary, not having candidates hand picked by Party bosses.

16th Amendment - Federal Income Tax

17th Amendment - Direct election of Senators, taking power away from political bosses and the state legislatures.

18th Amendment - Prohibition

19th Amendment - Equal Suffrage

-The History Of Women's Rights in America

Muller v Oregon(1908)
Brandeis Brief (protective laws)

Triangle Shirtwaist Fire - 1911

Blacks were not really helped by Progressives.

NAACP created to help combat "last hired , first fired"

muckrakers wrote literature of the atrocities of government, business, and politics.
Ida Tarbell - The History of Standard Oil

Upton Sinclair - The Jungle

Federal Reserve Act (1913)
helped to stabilize US Banking
US is divided into 12 districts owned by the member banks

All were supervised by Federal Reserve Board members who were appointed by the President

Acted as the Banker's Bank, lending money to its members

Scorecard - The Progressives

1.Gave meaning and direction to politics from 1890 - WWI

2.Common Sense Reform- moderate not radical

3.Improved conditions, however provided the foundation for many reforms of the New Deal

The Presidents

Theodore Roosevelt - T.R.

Born of a wealthy, aristocratic family.

Very opinionated; Aggressive; Experienced.

Rough Rider war hero became governor of NY. Very popular but his own man.

"Kicked upstairs" to be
McKinley's running mate.

Platform of gold standard, expansionism and prosperity

Democrat Wm. Jennings Bryan - dead silver issue and anti-imperialism

McKinley wins, T.R. to nowhere (VP)

*Became President at 42 when William McKinley was assassinated in 1901

Very Nationalistic - Felt that America was ready to be a world Power
(Speak softly and carry a big Stick)

Strong President- He viewed the Presidency as an office that could anything the Constitution does not forbid.

Eg. Panama Canal - built through Executive Power and an informal agreement. " I took the Canal Zone while Congress debated the possibilities."

Roosevelt's "Cowboy Diplomacy" aided a Panamanian revolt from Colombia while Congress was negotiation

Canal is built - 400 mil by 1914

Roosevelt Corollary
- To the Monroe Doctrine

England and Germany were seeking payment from their debtors, Venezuela and the Dominican Republic

* the US will intervene and pay off the debt when necessary in the Western Hemisphere
In re Latin America

Russo-Japanese War 1904
-Control of Manchuria and Korea

Treaty of Portsmouth, New Hampshire
Teddy first American to win the Noble Peace Prize

Domestic Policy

Election of 1904
TR defeated Alton B. Parker

Japanese in California
Special School issue problem
T. R. settles the issue by mediation

Gentlemen's Agreement 1907-08
No special schools
- slow down immigration

T.R. is concerned about
Japan's perception of the United States

Roosevelt launches
The Great White Fleet(16 Battleships)

He showed the world that
America could wage war anywhere in the world

1908 - Root-Takahira Agreement between the US and Japan, respecting each others territorial possessions

"Join the Navy and See the World."

The Square Deal
Everyone should be treated equally

Trust Busting
- breaking up the monopolies

Govt Regulation of Business - especially railroads; unrealistic but

Elkins Act (1903) - tried to curb rebates

Hepburn Act (1906) gave the ICC power to regulate railroads, setting published rates

Pure food and Drug Act (1906) - the inspection of all marketed foods and drugs

1902 Coal Strike - TR sided with labor who wanted Arbitration

Northern Securities - suit was filed against Morgan's Western Railroad monopoly(owning most of the Railroad Lines)

Panic of 1907 - TR bailed out by Morgan and Wall Street

TR lets Morgan (US Steel) absorb the Tennessee Coal and Iron Company

TR - Addressed the issues of wealth and poverty-Uneven distribution of wealth
Not very effective

Conservation - very effective; established the
National Conservation Association;
235 mil acres of National Parks.

Gifford Pinchot headed the federal Division of Forestry

The Teddy Bear

Teddy Hand Picked his Successor
William Howard Taft

Very Conservative but a vigorous prosecutor of trusts.

*Dollar Diplomacy - using foreign policy to protect Wall Street dollars invested abroad.

Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy
Sec of the Interior Richard Ballinger reversed TR's conservation policies

Taft backs Ballinger and dismisses Pinchot on insubordination

Taft under political pressure
Ballinger resigns

*High Tariffs helped the trust
(higher prices on imports)

Progressive Republicans backed Taft on lowering the tariff; competition

Taft is victim of politics as he signs the Payne-Aldrich Bill which raises prices on imports

He loses Progressive support

Taft advocated less Federal intervention with Conservation;

GOP is split

Roosevelt returns to NY then to Kansas and gives speech on

"New Nationalism" encouraging the government to increase its power to remedy social abuses

Democrats win the House in 1910

TR - "My hat is in the ring!"
seizes the Progressive banner from

TR was angry and ran against him in th 1912 Republican Primary

Taft retained the nomination

Roosevelt ran as a third party candidate for the National Progressive Party (Bull Moose)

Taft - Republican
The Republican vote was split

Democrat - Woodrow Wilson becomes a minority President


Chapter 21

Woodrow Wilson - "New Freedom"

- best educated of all the presidents
(once President of Princeton)

- believed in strong executive leadership
(a Progressive)

- lower the Tariff
Underwood Tariff Bill(1913)

Later in 1913, 16th Amendment
(Income Tax) gave govt revenue far above tariff

- reformed the Banking System
(Federal Reserve Act)

- desired to control the Trusts
Federal Trade Commission Act (1914)
Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914)

- very stubborn and uncompromising
- lacked the "common touch "

Election of 1916

Roosevelt could have won
the Republican Nomination but refused

Charles Evans Hughes runs and is narrowly defeated by incumbent Wilson

Mexico - Ruled by Huerta
-Wilson spoke out against him

Wilson allowed American arms to flow to
Carranza and Pancho Villa
(against Huerta)

Everyone resented American involvement.
Villa kills 18 Americans in Mexico

General John J. Pershing clashes with Carranza's troops mauls Villa's forces but never captures Pancho

Jan 1917 Pershing is recalled home

World War I

Central Powers Allies

1. Austria-Hungary 1. England
2. Germany 2. France

3. Turkey 3. Italy
4. Bulgaria 4. Russia
(until 1917)
5. Japan
6. US

1914 - Franz Ferdinand shot by a Serbian Nationalist

Secret Treaties and Alliances plunged Europe into War

Trench Warfare

1. Front trenches were outposts
a) no-mans land
b) network command center

by 1917, 5 million soldiers killed;
dirty conditions, Trench fevers, Trench mouth.

War and Weapons

-flame throwers
-machine guns
-field artillery

-Poison Gas
-Dog Fighting

Problem of Neutral Rights

Neutral Nations still traded with nations at war and on both sides.

International Law allowed inspection of ships on the seas and of neutral ships.

Problem - neutral cargo was seized
- no one could effectively enforce neutral rights
- submarine warfare


Very important to US. We did business with both sides. American businessmen made big money off war.

Blockade - cut off trade with Germany
(170 mill to 1 mill)


Trade with Allies (800 mill - 3 Bill)

+ 2 Bill to Allies
in Bank Loans

- Pro Anglo-American Sentiment (except German and Irish Americans)

- Atlantic Cable was cut; messages went through Great Britain

Wilson hoped for a "Peace without victory" keeping America out of the war and that all combatants would give up their dreams of conquest

Zimmermann Note- German Foreign Minister's message to the German Ambassador in Mexico asking the Mexicans to enter the war on the German side. In return , Germany would help them to get back New Mexico, Texas and Arizona.

Wilson - "the world must be safe for democracy". Americans must fight for the rights of small nations and bring peace and safety to make the world itself at last, free.

America enters the War

-America calls for a Draft and support of the war effort

-War Bonds are sold to help finance the war

-At first, US Army provided moral support to Allies

- Gen Pershing and the American Expeditionary Force made the difference at Belleau Wood, Chateau Thierry, Argonne Forest

Wilson's Fourteen Points
A Peace Plan presented to Congress Jan 1918.

1. Secret diplomacy would be abolished in favor of open covenants

2. Free Trade throughout the world
3. Freedom of the Seas
4. Self-determination
5. National borders would be adjusted
people would self-govern

6. League of Nations would preserve the peace

Mobilizing Minds

Committee on Public Information
George Creel
- selling the war to Americans
(War Bonds)

"Halt The Hun" - "Over there"

-created anti-German sentiment in US

Progressive Movement
- Prohibition 18th Amendment

- Equal Suffrage - 19th Amendment

Brest-Litvosk Treaty- Russia out of the war and pulls back from the Eastern Front

Wilson sends troops to Northern Russia at Archangel (resentment)

In October 1918, Germans turned to Wilson for a peace based on the Fourteen Points.

Wilson - Kaiser must be overthrown
Germans were tired and hungry, they forced him to flee into Holland

agreed to an Armistice, Nov 11, 1918

Wilson actively worked in the Congressional elections for Democratic support.

Republicans won the majority, Wilson loses prestige at home.

Wilson goes to the Paris Peace talks without consulting the new Chair of the Senate Committee of Foreign Relations - Henry Cabot Lodge

The failure of the
Treaty of Versailles

The big four at the Paris Peace Conference

Georges Clemenceau - France
David Lloyd George - England
Vittorio Orlando - Italy
Woodrow Wilson - USA

The old Euro-Powers had their way and bargained secretly with each other

Germany forced to pay heavy war reparations.

Wilson agreed to it, planning to work things out later once the Treaty was signed by all and the League of Nations was a reality.

Article 10 - Treaty of Versaille

Treaty was delayed and debated in the US Senate

William E. Borah
Henry Cabot Lodge

Wilson was ill - he collapsed

did not meet with his Cabinet for 7 months

Election of 1920

Republican - Warren G. Harding
Isolationist - "Back to Normalcy"

Democrat - James M. Cox

Wilson put it to Referendum - defeated by the vote of the American people

Five-Power Treaty - purpose was to reduce naval production

Four-Power Treaty - Preserve the status-quo in the Pacific

Kellog-Briand Pact (1928) -
62 nations signed it renouncing war as a means of foreign policy

Wilson died in 1924 - defeated


America as a World Power

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