Late 19th Century - Manifest Destiny
"The White Man's Burden"
1) Anglo-Saxon man was superior to all dark skinned peoples
2) White man's duty to guide
the dark skinned peoples of the world.
US Naval Officer- Alfred T. Mahan
Believed that the key to being a world
power was through a large and strong navy.
1) protect American business overseas
2) promote American business
3) called for a canal across Panama
4) US dominance in the Caribbean
5) Control of Samoa and Hawaii
*American businessman felt they needed to expand their markets across the globe.
19th Century -
So. America, Philippines
20th Century - US Navy protects
a) American markets overseas-
at the same time protects our customers
b) Natural Resources - vital to the success of US business and to the success
of our economy
c) strategic locations- control and dominance of the seas insures our countries safety. We usually
maintain bases or patrol certain strategic areas of the world, thus protecting our interests.
Backlash - Anti-Imperialists
of the 19th Century
did not want America to control foreign nations
- do not want America to rule over Asian
- US should be practicing the principles spelled out in the Declaration of Independence.
momentum of the Isolationists
US citizens own sugar/pineapple plantations (like old South)
enjoyed a stateside monopoly
1891 - rise of Queen Liliuokalani
She is Anti-American and spoke for the poor
of the islands
White US minority is sponsored by Marines and over-throw the Queen
-a pro US government is
A treaty of annexation is drafted
Harrison leaves office and a Democratic Senate rejects the
"Honest Grover Cleveland"
restores Queen Lil
*Foreign Rebuttal - The
Boxer Rebellion. Chinese Nationalists protesting the Open Door Policy.
"A Splendid Little War"
- Joseph Pulitzer William
"You supply the pictures and I'll supply the War"
Became contagious to Americans. We wanted to World Power.
Intense Pro-American fever.
Americans felt it
was time to show Europe her greatness
Spanish American War
- Cubans began to revolt against Spanish
rule(1868) - wanted to self-govern and free all the slaves on the island.
- Spain was slow to comply. This led to
- 1895 Gen "Butcher" Weylar was sent by Spain to calm down the revolt.
hundreds and imprisoned thousands in concentration camps. (So did the partisan Cubans)
Sympathy for Cuba=50 million
the de Lome Letter - written by the Spanish Minister to the US criticizing
President McKinley. Hearst published the letter.
Battleship Maine sent to Cuba ran over a mine in Havana harbor and
sank. 260 lives lost. The battle cry, "Remember the Maine"
Spain agreed to arbitration but McKinley
and Congress ignored it.
War was declared on Spain.
* Teller Amendment - the US did not desire to occupy
Cuba, just to liberate
Great success with US Navy. Dewey wiped out the Spanish fleet in the Philippines.
was very disorganized, many died from fever and disease
*Results of Spanish American War-
Treaty of Paris 1898
-annexation of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines(20 mil)
Still a problem with the Filipinos
Emilio Aguinaldo - led a revolt against American Imperialism
In 1899, McKinley appointed Wm. H. Taft to the Philippine
Commission to make recommendations on the problem.
Aguinaldo finally captured in 1901
forced by US onto Cuba;
- Cuba could not deal with
any foreign power without US consent
-US can build naval bases and interfere in Cuban affairs
until 1934, when repealed)
US annexes Hawaii
Leaders were rising middle class,
college educated Professionals/Reformers
right the wrongs of
"The American Way"
a) Big Business
b) Child Labor
distribution of wealth- 2% of America controlled 60% of the nation's wealth
d) safety in the workplace
e) low wages for women
How do these problems get addressed?
Through Federal and State Legislation
and through voting reform.
State Government Reform
Robert M. Lafollette fought against railroad and
lumber interests in Wisconsin. Governor 1901
For the Voter.......
Initiative - voters could propose measures
that they wanted to become law when not on the ballot.
Referendum - voters make the final decision on laws passed
by legislators. Eg. Affordable Housing
Recall - public could remove from office an official not performing his duties.
Direct Primary - voters can vote in a Primary, not having candidates hand picked by Party bosses.
16th Amendment - Federal Income Tax
17th Amendment - Direct election of Senators, taking power away from political
bosses and the state legislatures.
18th Amendment - Prohibition
19th Amendment - Equal Suffrage
History Of Women's Rights in America
Muller v Oregon(1908)
Brandeis Brief (protective laws)
Shirtwaist Fire - 1911
Blacks were not really helped by Progressives.
to help combat "last hired , first fired"
muckrakers wrote literature of the atrocities of government,
business, and politics.
Ida Tarbell - The History of Standard Oil
Upton Sinclair - The Jungle
Federal Reserve Act (1913)
helped to stabilize US Banking
US is divided into 12 districts owned by the member
All were supervised by Federal Reserve Board members who were appointed by the President
the Banker's Bank, lending money to its members
Scorecard - The Progressives
1.Gave meaning and direction
to politics from 1890 - WWI
2.Common Sense Reform- moderate not radical
3.Improved conditions, however
provided the foundation for many reforms of the New Deal
Roosevelt - T.R.
Born of a wealthy, aristocratic family.
Very opinionated; Aggressive; Experienced.
Rough Rider war hero became governor of NY. Very popular but his own man.
"Kicked upstairs" to be
McKinley's running mate.
Platform of gold standard, expansionism and prosperity
Democrat Wm. Jennings
Bryan - dead silver issue and anti-imperialism
McKinley wins, T.R. to nowhere (VP)
*Became President at
42 when William McKinley was assassinated in 1901
Very Nationalistic - Felt that America was ready to be a world
(Speak softly and carry a big Stick)
Strong President- He viewed the Presidency as an office that
could anything the Constitution does not forbid.
Eg. Panama Canal - built through Executive Power and an informal
agreement. " I took the Canal Zone while Congress debated the possibilities."
Diplomacy" aided a Panamanian revolt from Colombia while Congress was negotiation
Canal is built - 400 mil by
- To the Monroe Doctrine
England and Germany were seeking payment
from their debtors, Venezuela and the Dominican Republic
* the US will intervene and pay off the debt when necessary
in the Western Hemisphere
In re Latin America
Russo-Japanese War 1904
-Control of Manchuria and
Treaty of Portsmouth, New Hampshire
Teddy first American to win the Noble Peace Prize
Election of 1904
TR defeated Alton B. Parker
Japanese in California
T. R. settles the issue by mediation
Gentlemen's Agreement 1907-08
No special schools
slow down immigration
T.R. is concerned about
Japan's perception of the United States
The Great White Fleet(16 Battleships)
He showed the world that
America could wage war anywhere in the world
1908 - Root-Takahira Agreement between the US and Japan, respecting each others territorial possessions
"Join the Navy and See the World."
The Square Deal
Everyone should be treated equally
- breaking up the monopolies
Govt Regulation of Business - especially railroads; unrealistic but
Elkins Act (1903) - tried to curb rebates
Hepburn Act (1906) gave the ICC power to regulate railroads, setting
Pure food and Drug Act (1906) - the inspection of all marketed foods and drugs
Coal Strike - TR sided with labor who wanted Arbitration
Northern Securities - suit was filed against Morgan's
Western Railroad monopoly(owning most of the Railroad Lines)
Panic of 1907 - TR bailed out by Morgan and Wall
TR lets Morgan (US Steel) absorb the Tennessee Coal and Iron Company
TR - Addressed the
issues of wealth and poverty-Uneven distribution of wealth
Not very effective
Conservation - very effective;
National Conservation Association;
235 mil acres of National Parks.
Gifford Pinchot headed
the federal Division of Forestry
The Teddy Bear
Teddy Hand Picked his Successor
William Howard Taft
Very Conservative but a vigorous prosecutor of trusts.
*Dollar Diplomacy - using foreign policy to protect
Wall Street dollars invested abroad.
Sec of the Interior Richard
Ballinger reversed TR's conservation policies
Taft backs Ballinger and dismisses Pinchot on insubordination
Taft under political pressure
*High Tariffs helped the trust
(higher prices on
Progressive Republicans backed Taft on lowering the tariff; competition
Taft is victim of politics
as he signs the Payne-Aldrich Bill which raises prices on imports
He loses Progressive support
less Federal intervention with Conservation;
GOP is split
Roosevelt returns to NY then to Kansas and gives
"New Nationalism" encouraging the government to increase its power to remedy social abuses
Democrats win the House in 1910
TR - "My hat is in the ring!"
seizes the Progressive banner
TR was angry and ran against him in th 1912 Republican Primary
Taft retained the nomination
Roosevelt ran as a third party candidate for the National Progressive Party (Bull Moose)
Taft - Republican
The Republican vote was split
Democrat - Woodrow Wilson becomes a minority President
Woodrow Wilson - "New Freedom"
- best educated of all the presidents
(once President of Princeton)
- believed in strong executive leadership
lower the Tariff
Underwood Tariff Bill(1913)
Later in 1913, 16th Amendment
(Income Tax) gave govt revenue
far above tariff
- reformed the Banking System
(Federal Reserve Act)
- desired to control the Trusts
Federal Trade Commission Act (1914)
Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914)
- very stubborn and uncompromising
lacked the "common touch "
Election of 1916
Roosevelt could have won
Nomination but refused
Charles Evans Hughes runs and is narrowly defeated by incumbent Wilson
Mexico - Ruled
-Wilson spoke out against him
Wilson allowed American arms to flow to
Carranza and Pancho Villa
Everyone resented American involvement.
Villa kills 18 Americans in Mexico
John J. Pershing clashes with Carranza's troops mauls Villa's forces but never captures Pancho
Jan 1917 Pershing
is recalled home
World War I
Central Powers Allies
1. Austria-Hungary 1. England
Germany 2. France
3. Turkey 3. Italy
4. Bulgaria 4. Russia
1914 - Franz Ferdinand shot by a Serbian Nationalist
and Alliances plunged Europe into War
1. Front trenches were outposts
b) network command center
by 1917, 5 million soldiers killed;
dirty conditions, Trench fevers, Trench
War and Weapons
Problem of Neutral Rights
Neutral Nations still traded with nations at war and
on both sides.
International Law allowed inspection of ships on the seas and of neutral ships.
- neutral cargo was seized
- no one could effectively enforce neutral rights
- submarine warfare
Very important to US. We did business with both sides. American businessmen made big money off war.
- cut off trade with Germany
(170 mill to 1 mill)
Trade with Allies (800 mill - 3 Bill)
+ 2 Bill to Allies
in Bank Loans
- Pro Anglo-American Sentiment (except German and Irish
- Atlantic Cable was cut; messages went through Great Britain
Wilson hoped for a "Peace
without victory" keeping America out of the war and that all combatants would give up their dreams of conquest
Note- German Foreign Minister's message to the German Ambassador in Mexico asking the Mexicans to enter the war on the German
side. In return , Germany would help them to get back New Mexico, Texas and Arizona.
Wilson - "the world must
be safe for democracy". Americans must fight for the rights of small nations and bring peace and safety to make the
world itself at last, free.
America enters the War
-America calls for a Draft and support of the war
-War Bonds are sold to help finance the war
-At first, US Army provided moral support to Allies
- Gen Pershing and the American Expeditionary Force made the difference at Belleau Wood, Chateau Thierry, Argonne Forest
Wilson's Fourteen Points
A Peace Plan presented to Congress Jan 1918.
1. Secret diplomacy
would be abolished in favor of open covenants
2. Free Trade throughout the world
3. Freedom of the Seas
5. National borders would be adjusted
people would self-govern
6. League of Nations would
preserve the peace
Committee on Public Information
the war to Americans
"Halt The Hun" - "Over there"
sentiment in US
- Prohibition 18th Amendment
- Equal Suffrage - 19th Amendment
Brest-Litvosk Treaty- Russia out of the war and pulls back from the Eastern Front
Wilson sends troops
to Northern Russia at Archangel (resentment)
In October 1918, Germans turned to Wilson for a peace based
on the Fourteen Points.
Wilson - Kaiser must be overthrown
Germans were tired and hungry, they forced him
to flee into Holland
agreed to an Armistice, Nov 11, 1918
Wilson actively worked in the Congressional
elections for Democratic support.
Republicans won the majority, Wilson loses prestige at home.
goes to the Paris Peace talks without consulting the new Chair of the Senate Committee of Foreign Relations - Henry Cabot
The failure of the
Treaty of Versailles
The big four at the Paris Peace Conference
Georges Clemenceau - France
David Lloyd George - England
Vittorio Orlando - Italy
Woodrow Wilson - USA
The old Euro-Powers had their way and bargained secretly with each other
Germany forced to pay heavy war
Wilson agreed to it, planning to work things out later once the Treaty was signed by all and the League
of Nations was a reality.
Article 10 - Treaty of Versaille
Treaty was delayed and debated in the US Senate
William E. Borah
Henry Cabot Lodge
Wilson was ill - he collapsed
did not meet with his Cabinet
for 7 months
Election of 1920
Republican - Warren G. Harding
Isolationist - "Back to Normalcy"
Democrat - James M. Cox
Wilson put it to Referendum - defeated by the vote of the American people
Five-Power Treaty - purpose was to reduce naval production
Four-Power Treaty - Preserve the status-quo in the
Kellog-Briand Pact (1928) -
62 nations signed it renouncing war as a means of foreign policy
died in 1924 - defeated
America as a World Power