Salerno's Classroom Celebrates America!

U.S. History Chapters 16,17,18

AP Government Summer Assignment
AP Chapters 1,2
AP Chapter 3
AP Chapter 4
AP Chapter 5
AP Chapter 6
AP Chapter 7
AP Chapter 8
AP Chapter 9
AP Chapter 10
AP Chapter 11
AP Chapter 12
AP Chapter 13
AP Chapter 14
AP Chapter 15
AP Chapter 16
U.S. History Chapters 1, 2, 3
U.S. History Chapter 4
U.S. History Chapter 5
U.S. History Chapter 6
U.S. History Chapter 7
U.S. History Chapter 8
U.S. History Chapter 9
U.S. History Chapter 10
U.S. History Chapter 11
U.S. History Chapter 12
U.S. History Chapter 13
U.S. History Chapter 14
U.S. History Chapters 16,17,18
U.S. History Chapters 19,20,21
U.S. History Chapters 22,23
U.S. History Chapters 24,25
U.S. History Chapters 26,27
U.S. History Chapters 28,29,30
U.S. History Chapter 31
U.S. History Chapter 32
U.S. History Chapter 33
US Government Chapters 1,2
US Government Chapter 3
US Government Chapters 10,11,12
US Government Chapters 13,14
US Government Chapter 18
US Govt Chapters 19,20,21
Remembering 9/11/01
The Civil Rights Movement
Economics Chapters 1,2,3
Eco Chapt 9
Eco Chapters 6,7,8
Eco Chapt 13
Eco Chapter 15
Eco Chapt 21


Chapters 16, 17, 18

Chapter 16
Post Civil War Growth in America


I. The Civil War
-increased the demands for goods, usually manufactured through the domestic system. The early wealthy industrialists had their origin there.

II.Limitless supply of natural resources
such as coal, oil etc.

III.Tremendous growth of Railroads
and other transportation facilities.
a) aided every phase of industry;
from raw material to the finished products
b) linked all parts of the country
c) opened new farm land
d) stimulated trade with the Far East

Negative aspect - discriminating rates(unpublished and changed to destroy competition). Kickbacks and rebates(cheaper prices and pay backs to big customers)
Interstate Commerce Act (1887)- forbid railroads to do the above. Not effective because of court holdups and weak commissioners.

IV.Population of the US increased 2 and 1/2 times from 1860-1900, creating an ever expanding market for manufactured goods

V. Labor - 2 sources
1. farms
2. immigrants

VI. Large amounts of investment capital
put into business growth

VII.Cooperative attitude of local, state, and national govt.

1. landgrants amounting to over 130 million acres. (especially to railroads who provided transportation of people, natural resources and finished products)

2. Protective Tariffs - "protected" infantile American businesses from foreign competition. They increased America's labor supply as business increased. This caused higher wages as prices increased to consumers. Tariffs eliminate foreign competition and American business began to monopolize. This, however, also eliminated foreign markets.

3. A stable money system based on gold.

All of this caused a wedding of business to politics and a one sided laissez faire policy in favor of big business. (no government interference or regulation)

VIII. Social and economic Darwinism

IX. Absence of international difficulties and full time devoting to resources and internal affairs


Explain the importance of railroads to the growth of the U.S. economy in the 19th Century. Be sure to mention the effects on commerce, money banking, labor and government.

Business practices and types

Corporation - chartered by the states
a) an easy access to new capital through the sale of additional shares of stock.
b) limited liability for losses
c) permenance and continuity

Pool - "Gentlemens's Agreement"
Made between corporations in the same industry who agreed on common practices (wages, prices). Short lived.

Trust- stocks of corporations assigned to trustees who operate all of the corporations as just one company. Eg. Standard Oil Trust controlling oil refining.

Problem -
crushing the competition and using unfair business practices

Sherman Anti-Trust Act- forcing a small business owner to join the trust was illegal. He must be permitted to operate independently. Somewhat ineffective and hard to enforce.

Holding Company-
a) purchases the voting stock of several corporations.

b) controls the patents of several industries.

c) purchases the physical property of competing companies.


Question - Were the wealthy Industrialists of the 19th Century Robber Barons or Statesmen?

1. They all believed in
Laissez Faire Capitalism

Social Darwinism

They all felt that it was their right to succeed in business. Anyone weak and not strong enough would be left behind.

The GNP of the US tripled along with our Per Capita Income.

Small businesses were destroyed;
The Economy was strengthened.

The American people actually benefitted from their ruthless business practices


Labor Movement

-Post Civil War America favored big business.

-rugged individualism, independence based on initiative

-Most American's did not favor Labor Movements (Socialist)

Many Immigrants eg. Italian and Irish would not join Unions( feared being labeled as anti-American)

The sacred employer/employee relationship must never be tampered with or questioned. Court cases always favored big business.


a) the factory system went unchecked; no government regulation, very little state regulation.

b) the constant threat of replacement, a useful tool of owners who threatened to replace workers with cheap help.

c) low wages forced the worker into longer hours. (less pay for more time at work - 72 hour work week meant making just enough money to get by). No labor organization
*Not until the 1920's were low wages associated with long working hours)

d) Poor working conditions- fires deaths, dismembered bodies, child labor, women at 1/4th pay. eg Triangle Shirt Waist Co.

e) Progress(automation) hurt labor

f) Abuses of Company Towns (Pullman)
"I sold my soul to the Company Store"

Famous Strike - Pullman Car Company(1894)
American Railway Union -Eugene V Debs

-paralyzed railroads from Chicago to the Pacific Coast.

- An Federal injunction told them not to strike.
They did anyway.

- President Cleveland ordered Federal Troops to the scene. Debs was arrested - strike ended


Write an essay on the rise of the American labor movement. Mention-the conditions of workers in large industrial occupations, the role of government, strikes, Knights of Labor and the A F of L and eventually the CIO.


Chapter 17
America in the City

The New Immigrants (1860-1920)
From Southern and Eastern Europe


1. Economic Stagnation - population
- bad economics
-lack of jobs

2. Chaos of European Politics
- no stability

3. Opportunity- American Freedom

4. Recruitment - Steamship companies replaced cargo with people. Charged low rates making it possible for travel

5. American Letter- some legitimate and some were not.

Their Characteristics

1) from south and central Europe
2) mainly Roman Catholic
3) very poor
4) illiterate and unskilled
5) Tended to ghettoize -retaining their own language and customs of the Old World, rather than assimilating into American Culture


- Moved into large cities;
- retained their old customs;
- slums; Roman Catholic
- entered construction at the lowest possible level, replacing the Irish;
- worked the docks and the harbors

worked on railroads; menial labor
and domestic work

Russian and Eastern European Jews
garment industry, labor unions and workers rights


Native white Americans feared "Race Suicide"

-spotlight on cities

a) immigrants moved into slums and were blamed for them. They were not offered every opportunity

b) thought of as inferior because they looked different and did not emphasize education and upward mobility

c) labor unions - considered a threat to capitalism

All this prompted unfavorable legislation.

1) Chinese Exclusion Act(1882) law prohibited Chinese immigration for a period of 10 years. Why?
Ans. They were more productive

2) European Restriction Act (1882)
placed a .50 tax on any immigrant coming into the country

3) Literacy Test Act (1917) had to pass a test for admittance

4) Immigration Act 1924 - Quotas

Discrimination - Prejudice

**Big City corrupt political bosses greeted
and courted the newcomers**

Reason: Their Vote!!

Nativism - attacked immigrants through actions and words

-they briefly became a political force trying to keep immigrants down eg. Know-Nothing Party.

-they accused immigrants of being Clannish and felt that they would vote as a block.

-they worked against Catholicism
and the influence of the Pope.

-they tried to halt foreign born from voting, attempting to increase standards for naturalization.

Achievements of the Immigrants

1820 - 1920,
35 million people immigrated to the United States
and were never a threat to overwhelm the native population.

1860- 1/8 foreign born
1910- 1/7 " " " "
1920- 1/5 " " " "

Assimilation - Nativists cried takeover, but the immigrants blended into American society. By the second generation, ties to the old country were usually destroyed

1) public education- children assimilate very quickly

2) economic opportunities-
learned the language in order to succeed

3) politics-
become a citizen and improve your status by voting

Economic Contributions

a) they did not drain resources (never a burden) but were a
positive in our economic growth

b) provided skilled and unskilled workers

c) enabled Americans to climb the ladder of success


Reformers and The Social Gospel

Jane Addams - Hull House (Chicago)

Morrill Act (1862 Federal Land
Hatch Act (1887) Grants - Education

Booker T. Washington

W.E.B. DuBois


Samuel Langhorne Clemens - Mark Twain


Politics of the Gilded Age

"Stalwarts" -old fashioned Republican Bosses

They loved the scandal ridden Grant years when they had their way with government

Leader - Sen. Roscoe Conkling - NY

Election of 1876 -Rutherford B. Hayes
Honest man

Hayes won the battle of the
US Customs House(tariff revenues)

- tried to revived
Civil Service Commission (reform)

Lost the war of corruption

Election of 1880
Rep Convention
Grant(Stalwart) v Garfield(half-breed)

Half-Breeds - Leader James G. Blaine
"Plumed Knight"

They were only "half" loyal to the old Republican Way

Garfield and Chester Arthur(Stalwart)
(Dems) General Winfield Scott Hancock
(no political experience)

Garfield wins; Conkling to Customs
shot July 2 by Charles Guiteau;
( I am a Stalwart)

Garfield died September 19

**Chester A. Arthur is President**

Dapper Stalwart President

Arthur and other Republicans began a crusade of reform -

Civil Service bill - Pendleton Act
(reform bill sponsored by Democrat George Pendleton)

Arthur's support is praised by the public but loses nomination in 1884 to Blaine

Election of 1884

Blaine - many skeletons in closet
reform republicans bolted to the Democrats (Mugwamps) holier than thou Democratic Candidate
-Grover Cleveland, Honest man.....Perhaps too honest

No holds barred election!!!!

Republicans shouted,

"Ma, ma, where's my Pa? "

Republican Clergyman
"Rum, Romanism, Rebellion"

Insult to the Irish hurt Blaine deeply in NY.
He did not refute the remark

Cleveland carries NY and wins race

-did appoint Democrats to key posts

Immediate Problems - "Pension abuse"

Cleveland vetoed private pension bills in spite of the
Grand Army of the Republic (GAR)

The Tariff

US Treasury's annual surplus 145 mil
(Government's chief source of income)

Embarrassing situation because of Laissez-faire

Cleveland wanted to lower the tariff and it became the issue dividing the Political Parties in 1888

The Election of 1888

Cleveland v Rep Benjamin Harrison
-Cleveland married his 21 yr old ward

Election issue - Tariff
American business prospered
Gilded Age Politics favored tariff which favored big business(trusts)

Republicans found a letter written by the British minister to an American

"A vote for Cleveland is a vote for Britain"
(shabby journalists published the letter)

Harrison wins a close election 233 to 168 electoral votes.

Cleveland, however won the popular vote as the curiously non re-elected incumbent since "little Van"

Benjamin Harrison - President

In Congress (Billion-Dollar)

Speaker of the House - Thomas B. Reed
(Czar Reed)
Used power and influence to control the House of Representatives.

Squelched filibusters of non-partisan Democrats.

Used the gavel to keep order;
at first severally criticized by the Democratic party, but later complimented in keeping order on the floor by not wasting time.

Harrison - former Civil War General
Pension Act of 1890.

-used up the government surplus
-saved the tariff

A Curious Reed bill
- Sherman Anti-Trust Act

McKinley Tariff Bill of 1890 - boosted tariff rates to the highest peacetime level ever.

Also a higher price on foreign agricultural products
(not effective)

Farmers again are paying high prices!

The Grange Movement of farmers was an attempt to speak as one voice and cooperate on purchases. They blamed the tariff and its supporters for their problems

Grange Law (state law) upheld
Munn v Illinois (1876) law that supervised storage for grain as being OK in protecting public welfare

Debtors, Creditors, inflation, deflation, silver and gold

Tariff meant high revenues in the East who favored currency backed by gold.

Western and Southern farmers favored the Coining of Silver (Hard Money) would inflate "greenbacks"

Bland Allison Act was a limited government silver purchase program

Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 was passed to increase governments purchase of silver.

Politically correct as the McKinley Tariff goes through Congress

Election of 1892

Republicans stood strong and reckless on the tariff.
Nominated incumbent Benjamin Harrison

Emergance of Populist Party
(Third Party of frustrated farmers of South & West)

-demanding free and unlimited coinage of silver, a graduated income tax, government ownership of telephone, telegraph and railroads

nominated - James B. Weaver

Democratic Party - Grover Cleveland

Cleveland wins again

Problems in 1893-
Labor disorders;
farm problems; overbuilding;

The US Treasury was down to
41 million dollars in gold reserves

Problems = a depression on 1893

Gen. Coxey's Commonweal Army's March on Washington
- comic relief

Cleveland at first sold bonds to replenish gold supply

Cleveland turned to J.P. Morgan
Wall Street lent US Government 65 million in gold
(at about 10%)

They would obtain gold from abroad

Election of 1896
Republicans nominated
William McKinley - Mark Hanna's Boy

-once pro-silver in Congress
now a strong advocate of gold standard

Hanna - businessman (President-maker)

Democrats - Cleveland lost control of his party,
becoming conservative

William Jennings Bryan
"The Boy Orator of the Platte"

Silver-Tongued Cross of Gold Speech
based on platform of the ratio of gold to silver 16 to 1 (.50/1.00)

Hanna waged a "Gold Bug" campaign against Bryan

Campaign turned into a Class Conflict
Plowholders v Bondholders
Main Street v Wall Street

Hanna printed pamphlets on the dangers
of high silver standard

McKinley wins the election as the laissez faire candidate

-farm prices gradually rose
-Dingley Tariff Bill keeps the tariff high

The Gold Standard Act of 1900
- greenbacks could be redeemed in gold

Gold deposits in Canada, Alaska, South Africa and Australia were discovered. Also extraction process

They eased the pressure of
Money/gold problem by gradual inflation


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