Salerno's Classroom Celebrates America!
AP Chapter 15
AP Government Summer Assignment
AP Chapters 1,2
AP Chapter 3
AP Chapter 4
AP Chapter 5
AP Chapter 6
AP Chapter 7
AP Chapter 8
AP Chapter 9
AP Chapter 10
AP Chapter 11
AP Chapter 12
AP Chapter 13
AP Chapter 14
AP Chapter 15
AP Chapter 16
U.S. History Chapters 1, 2, 3
U.S. History Chapter 4
U.S. History Chapter 5
U.S. History Chapter 6
U.S. History Chapter 7
U.S. History Chapter 8
U.S. History Chapter 9
U.S. History Chapter 10
U.S. History Chapter 11
U.S. History Chapter 12
U.S. History Chapter 13
U.S. History Chapter 14
U.S. History Chapters 16,17,18
U.S. History Chapters 19,20,21
U.S. History Chapters 22,23
U.S. History Chapters 24,25
U.S. History Chapters 26,27
U.S. History Chapters 28,29,30
U.S. History Chapter 31
U.S. History Chapter 32
U.S. History Chapter 33
US Government Chapters 1,2
US Government Chapter 3
US Government Chapters 10,11,12
US Government Chapters 13,14
US Government Chapter 18
US Govt Chapters 19,20,21
Remembering 9/11/01
The Civil Rights Movement
Economics Chapters 1,2,3
Eco Chapt 9
Eco Chapters 6,7,8
Eco Chapt 13
Eco Chapter 15
Eco Chapt 21

                                                     Chapter 15

                                            The Media and Politics



Joseph Pulitzer - NY World




William Randolph Hearst

NY Journal


To Frederic Remington in Cuba


"You furnish the pictures and              I'll furnish the war"



First Amendment Protection


New York Times Co. v US (1971)

Hugo Black -

"The press was protected so that it could bare the secrets of government and inform the people"




Newspapers competition

with cable, TV News, internet


Are their standard's lower?



TV Democracy - the history


*        TV and the 1/2 hour sitcom


*        Cable News Network

1990s coverage of war, events


*        Magazine style talk shows





The Electronic Media

(including the internet)



TV, Radio - A super way to communicate to the American people during an election.


* The government, through content regulation does attempt to regulate the electronic media


Turner Broadcasting v FCC (1994)

cable protected- First Amendment




Broadcasters must provide

"equal time"

to political candidates



"fairness doctrine"

both sides of an issue presented

Red Lion

Broadcasting v    FCC(1968)


                                                     "equal time"



*        Court is more concerned with the rights of the listeners




FCC v Pacifica (1978)

George Carlin and 7 no-no words





Action for Children's TV (1992)



1996            TV - V Chip

*        Internet Regulation a NO GO




The Press and Prior Restraint


(Regulating what can be printed)


*        The Pentagon Papers in 1971



*        The H-Bomb Secret -

The Progressive






Court has permitted


*        protecting confidentiality

Branzburg v Hayes(1972)     

citizenship more important


US v Caldwell (1972)

testifying before grand jury



*        the jailing of Myron Farber

NY Times v New Jersey(1978)

a question of NJ shield laws

Farber spent 40 days in jail


*        allowed searches in newspaper office for pictures

*        suits against press for libel

NY Times v Sullivan (1964)

Court ruled that public officials cannot recover damages for published criticism


Hustler Mag v Falwell(1988)                                                                   





*        government to protect the integrity of the CIA

Snepp v US (1980)


Court ruled on Decent Interval

former CIA officer had to give  government his royalties


Westmoreland and Vietnam





Why did Thomas Jefferson say that if it was possible


"to decide whether we should have government without newspapers or newspapers without government, I should not hesitate the moment to prefer the latter"?




The Free Press and a Fair Trial

Is the possible?


-The OJ Simpson Trial


publicity and public opinion


Is it really fair?


"gag orders" - unconstitutional?

Nebraska Press v Stuart (1976)

Gruesome murder case and a

pre-trial hearing

Local judge issued gag order


-Newspapers petitioned SC


*SC unanimously ruled against it




Press-Enterprise Co. v

Superior Court (1986)


Even pre-trial hearings must be open to the free press


Terrorism and the Press


*        Fear of Copycat Crimes because of the publicity



Unabomber - NY Times, Wash Post

publishing his manifesto




William Safire, Safire's New                        Political Dictionary


"They won't just be press agents trying to impart a favorable spin to a routine release. They'll be the Spin Doctors, senior advisors to the candidates."


"spin doctors" - attempted c


ontrol of political reaction


News Leaks

Thomas B. Ross describes them,

the leak is "its lifeline to unauthorized truth."


"backgrounders" - leaks bits and pieces of secret information

eg. Starr Report



On Background

          Information provided to a journalist that will not be attributed to a named source.



*Woodward and Bernstein 

investigative reporting on the Watergate break-in    

"Deep Throat"

                                               (Deep Background)

                                                   Press Release

   A document offering an official comment or position


Press briefing                                       

          A relatively restricted session between a press secretary or aide and the press


Press Conference

          An unrestricted session between an elected official and the press


Off the record

          Information provided to a journalist that will not be released to the public


On the record

          Information provided to a journalist that can be released and attributed by name to the source





Investigative reporting and the TV News Show

NBC's Dateline -

on exploding GM pickup trucks


News people actually rigged truck to explode on camera for their special report






Freedom of Information Act

signed in 1966,strengthened 1974

modified - Reagan, Clinton

Executive orders to declassify and lengthen release time of sensitive information





Is the Press Bias? Ruthless?

Opinionated?         Unfair?



The Press on Presidents

usually tough


The Presidential Press Secretary must be very adept when dealing with the press.


Eisenhower - at first denied that U2 planes deliberately flew over the Soviet Union



Kennedy - falsely said he did not intervene in Cuba


Johnson - Gulf of Tonkin


Nixon - lied about Watergate

Carter – Iran/Hostage Crisis


Reagan – Iran/Contra


Bush sr. – No new taxes!!


Clintonpersonal life


G. W. Bush – Speaking ability




*        Presidents can put a  favorable spin to the news


“Tear down that wall”

“Evil Empire”

“Communism is finally defeated”        






The Media Effect

The influence on news sources on public opinion


*an election (2000)







Can the media create an image about the news reporter?



Walter Cronkite

David Brinkley

Mike Wallace

Sam Donaldson

Tom Brokaw


*        Tim Russert


Barbara Walters

Peter Jennings





"public journalism"

media uses its influence to encourage voters to become involved in politics






The Press and the Military


Secretary of State, James Baker

On the relationship between the military and the news media

"The Gulf War was quite a victory....outflanked, out maneuvered by the US Military. ….But I think, given time, the press will bounce back."


*General H. Norman Schwartzkopf

                   “Stormin Norman


Admiral Borda

Former Naval Chief of Staff


Col. David Hackworth - Newsweek